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Worldwide bartering assimilation in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a assembly accommodation that anon exceeds several thousand bags per year. Currently, aggregate CNT powders are congenital in assorted bartering articles alignment from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and antic appurtenances to baiter hulls and baptize filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and actinic modification are enabling affiliation of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet accouterment acute automated backbone or electrical or thermal conductivities for abounding applications, CNT yarns and bedding already accept able achievement for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and failing electromagnetic shields.

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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are seamless cylinders of one or added layers of graphene (denoted single-wall, SWNT, or multiwall, MWNT), with accessible or bankrupt ends (1, 2). Perfect CNTs accept all carbons affirmed in a hexagonal filigree except at their ends, admitting defects in banal CNTs acquaint pentagons, heptagons, and added imperfections in the sidewalls that about abase acclimatized properties. Diameters of SWNTs and MWNTs are about 0.8 to 2 nm and 5 to 20 nm, respectively, although MWNT diameters can beat 100 nm. CNT lengths ambit from beneath than 100 nm to several centimeters, thereby bridging atomic and arresting scales.

When because the cross-sectional breadth of the CNT walls only, an adaptable modulus aing 1 TPa and a compactness backbone of 100 GPa has been abstinent for alone MWNTs (3). This backbone is over 10-fold college than any automated fiber. MWNTs are about brownish and can backpack currents of up to 109 A cm–2 (4). Alone CNT walls can be brownish or semiconducting depending on the acclimatization of the graphene filigree with account to the tube axis, which is alleged the chirality. Alone SWNTs can accept a thermal appliance of 3500 W m−1 K−1 at allowance temperature, based on the bank breadth (5); this exceeds the thermal appliance of diamond.

The alpha of boundless CNT analysis in the aboriginal 1990s was preceded in the 1980s by the aboriginal automated amalgam of what are now accepted as MWNTs and accurate observations of alveolate carbon nanofibers as aboriginal as the 1950s. However, CNT-related bartering action has developed best essentially during the accomplished decade. Since 2006, common CNT assembly accommodation has added at atomic 10-fold, and the anniversary cardinal of CNT-related account publications and issued patents continues to abound (Fig. 1).

Trends in CNT analysis and commercialization. (A) Account publications and issued common patents per year, forth with estimated anniversary assembly accommodation (see added materials). (B to E) Selected CNT-related products: attenuated bike anatomy [Photo address of BMC Switzerland AG], antifouling coatings [Courtesy of NanoCyl], printed electronics [Photo address of NEC Corporation; crooked use not permitted]; and electrostatic acquittal careful [Photo address of NanoComp Technologies, Incorporated].

Most CNT assembly today is acclimated in aggregate attenuated abstracts and attenuate films, which await on alternate CNT architectures accepting bound properties. Organized CNT architectures (fig. S1) such as angular accumbent forests, yarns, and bedding appearance affiance to calibration up the backdrop of alone CNTs and apprehend new functionalities, including appearance accretion (6), dry adherence (7), aerial damping (8, 9), terahertz animosity (10), large-stroke actuation (11, 12), near-ideal black-body assimilation (13), and thermoacoustic complete discharge (14).

However, anon accomplished mechanical, thermal, and electrical backdrop of CNT macrostructures such as yarns and bedding abide decidedly lower than those of alone CNTs.

Meanwhile, buoyed by large-volume aggregate production, CNT powders accept already been congenital in abounding bartering applications and are now entering the advance appearance of their artefact action cycle. In appearance of these trends, this analysis focuses on the best able present and approaching bartering applications of CNTs, forth with accompanying challenges that will drive connected analysis and development. Lists of accepted automated action and bartering articles are accustomed in tables S1 through S3.

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Chemical breath degradation (CVD) is the ascendant approach of high-volume CNT assembly and about uses fluidized bed reactors that accredit accordant gas circulation and calefaction alteration to metal agitator nanoparticles (15). Scale-up, use of bargain feedstocks, crop increases, and abridgement of activity burning and decay assembly (16) accept essentially decreased MWNT prices. However, all-embracing CVD methods crop contaminants that can admission CNT backdrop and generally crave cher thermal annealing and/or actinic analysis for their removal. These accomplish can acquaint defects in CNT sidewalls and abbreviate CNT length. Currently, aggregate antiseptic MWNTs are awash for beneath than $100 per kg, which is 1- to 10-fold greater than commercially accessible carbon fiber.

The compassionate of CVD action altitude has enabled best amalgam of brownish (17) or semiconducting SWNTs (18) with selectivity of 90 to 95%, doping of CNTs with boron or nitrogen (19, 20), and flow-directed advance of abandoned SWNTs up to 18.5 cm connected (21). However, bigger ability is actively bare of how CNT chirality, diameter, length, and abstention chronicle to agitator agreement and action conditions. In situ ascertainment of CNT nucleation (22) and atomic clay of the CNT-catalyst interface (23) will be analytical to advances in chirality-selective synthesis.

Alternatively, high-purity SWNT powders can be afar according to chirality by density-gradient centrifugation in aggregate with careful surfactant wrapping (24) or by gel chromatography (25). Although abounding CNT powders and suspensions are accessible commercially, the assembly of abiding CNT suspensions requires actinic modification of the CNT apparent or accession of surfactants. Washing or thermal analysis is about bare to aish surfactants afterwards degradation of the solution, such as by spin-coating or printing.

Moreover, because SWNT amalgam by CVD requires abundant tighter action ascendancy than MWNT amalgam and because of bequest costs of analysis and action development, aggregate SWNT prices are still orders of consequence college than for MWNTs. Use of MWNTs is accordingly advantaged for applications breadth CNT bore or bandgap is not critical, but best arising applications that crave chirality-specific SWNTs allegation added amount abridgement for bartering viability.

Alternatively, amalgam of long, accumbent CNTs that can be candy afterwards the allegation for burning in a aqueous offers affiance for cost-effective ability of acute aggregate properties. These methods accommodate self-aligned advance of accumbent (26) and vertical (27) CNTs on substrates coated with agitator particles and assembly of CNT bedding and yarns anon from floating-catalyst CVD systems (28). CNT forests can be manipulated into close debris (29), accumbent attenuate films (30), and intricate three-dimensional (3D) microarchitectures (31) and can be anon spun or fatigued into connected yarns and bedding (32, 33).

MWNTs were aboriginal acclimated as electrically conductive fillers in plastics, demography advantage of their aerial aspect adjustment to anatomy a aperture adjustment at concentrations as low as 0.01 weight percent (wt %). Disordered MWNT-polymer composites ability conductivities as aerial as 10,000 S m–1 at 10 wt % loading (34). In the automotive industry, conductive CNT plastics accept enabled electrostatic-assisted painting of mirror housings, as able-bodied as ammunition curve and filters that blow electrostatic charge. Added articles accommodate electromagnetic arrest (EMI)–shielding bales and dent carriers for the dent industry.

For load-bearing applications, CNT powders alloyed with polymers or forerunner resins can admission stiffness, strength, and courage (35). Adding ~1 wt % MWNT to adhesive adhesive enhances acerbity and breach courage by 6 and 23%, respectively, afterwards compromising added automated backdrop (36). These enhancements depend on CNT diameter, aspect ratio, alignment, dispersion, and interfacial alternation with the matrix. Abounding CNT manufacturers advertise premixed resins and adept batches with CNT loadings from 0.1 to 20 wt %. Additionally, engineering nanoscale stick-slip amid CNTs and CNT-polymer contacts can admission actual damping (37), which is acclimated to enhance antic goods, including tennis racquets, baseball bats, and bike frames (Fig. 1C).

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CNT resins are additionally acclimated to enhance cilia composites (35, 38). Contempo examples accommodate strong, failing wind agent blades and hulls for amphibian aegis boats that are bogus by appliance carbon cilia attenuated with CNT-enhanced adhesive (Fig. 2A) and attenuated wind agent blades. CNTs can additionally be deployed as additives in the amoebic precursors acclimated to anatomy carbon fibers. The CNTs admission the adjustment of carbon in the pyrolyzed fiber, enabling artifact of 1-μm bore carbon fibers with over 35% admission in backbone (4.5 GPa) and acerbity (463 GPa) compared with ascendancy samples afterwards CNTs (39).

Emerging CNT composites and macrostructures. (A) Micrograph assuming the cantankerous breadth of a carbon cilia coat with CNTs broadcast in the adhesive adhesive and a failing CNT-fiber attenuated baiter bark for amphibian aegis boats. [Images address of Zyvex Technologies] (B) CNT bedding and yarns acclimated as failing abstracts cables and electromagnetic (EM) careful material. [Images address of Nanocomp Technologies, Incorporated]

Toward the claiming of acclimation CNTs at beyond scales, hierarchical cilia composites accept been created by growing accumbent CNTs forests assimilate glass, SiC, alumina, and carbon fibers (35, 40, 41), creating alleged “fuzzy” fibers. Fuzzy CNT-SiC t abounding with adhesive showed crack-opening (mode I) and in-plane microburst interlaminar (mode II) toughnesses that are added by 348 and 54%, respectively, compared with ascendancy specimens (40), and CNT-alumina t showed 69% bigger approach II courage (41). Multifunctional applications beneath analysis accommodate lightning-strike protection, deicing, and structural bloom ecology for aircraft (35, 40).

In the connected run, CNT yarns and laminated bedding bogus by absolute CVD or backwoods spinning or cartoon methods may attempt with carbon cilia for high-end uses, abnormally in weight-sensitive applications acute accumulated electrical and automated functionality (Figs. 1E and 2B). In accurate reports, yarns bogus from high-quality few-walled CNTs accept accomplished a acerbity of 357 GPa and a backbone of 8.8 GPa but alone for a barometer breadth that is commensurable to the millimeter-long CNTs aural the yarn (28). Centimeter-scale barometer lengths showed 2-GPa strength, agnate to a gravimetric backbone equaling that of commercially accessible Kevlar (DuPont).

Because the anticipation of a analytical blemish increases with volume, macroscale CNT yarns may never accomplish the backbone of the basic CNTs. However, the aerial apparent breadth of CNTs may accommodate interfacial coupling that mitigates these deficiencies, and, clashing carbon fibers, CNT yarns can be askance afterwards aspersing their backbone (32). Further, blanket forest-drawn CNT bedding with anatomic crumb afore inserting aberration has provided weavable, braidable, and sewable yarns absolute up to 95 wt % powder, which accept been approved as superconducting wires, array and ammunition corpuscle electrodes, and self-cleaning t (42).

High-performance fibers of accumbent SWNTs can be bogus by coagulation-based spinning of CNT suspensions (43). This is adorable for scale-up if the amount of high-quality SWNTs decreases essentially or if spinning can be connected to bargain MWNTs. Bags of spinnerets could accomplish in parallel, and CNT acclimatization can be accomplished via aqueous clear formation, like for the spinning of Kevlar.

Besides polymer composites, the accession of baby amounts of CNTs to metals has provided added compactness backbone and modulus (44) that may acquisition applications in aerospace and automotive structures. Bartering Al-MWNT composites accept strengths commensurable to stainless animate (0.7 to 1 GPa) at one-third the anatomy (2.6 g cm–3). This backbone is additionally commensurable to Al-Li alloys, yet the Al-MWNT composites are reportedly beneath expensive.

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Last, MWNTs can additionally be acclimated as a flame-retardant accretion to plastics; this aftereffect is mainly attributed to changes in rheology by nanotube loading (45). These nanotube additives are commercially adorable as a backup for halogenated blaze retardants, which accept belted use because of ecology regulations.

Leveraging CNT dispersion, functionalization, and large-area degradation techniques, CNTs are arising as a multifunctional blanket material. For example, MWNT-containing paints abate biofouling of address hulls (Fig. 1C) by atramentous adapter of algae and barnacles (46). They are a accessible another to environmentally chancy biocide-containing paints. Incorporation of CNTs in anticorrosion coatings for metals can enhance blanket acerbity and backbone while accouterment an electric alleyway for cathodic protection.

Widespread development continues on CNT-based cellophane administering films (47) as an another to indium tin oxide (ITO). A affair is that ITO is acceptable added big-ticket because of the absence of indium, circuitous by growing appeal for displays, touch-screen devices, and photovoltaics. Besides cost, the adaptability of CNT cellophane conductors is a aloft advantage over breakable ITO coatings for adjustable displays. Further, cellophane CNT conductors can be deposited from band-aid (e.g., slot-die coating, accelerated spraying) and blooming by cost-effective nonlithographic methods (e.g., awning printing, microplotting). Contempo bartering development accomplishment has resulted in SWNT films with 90% accuracy and a area resistivity of 100 ohm per square. This apparent resistivity is able for some applications but still essentially college than for appropriately transparent, optimally benumbed ITO coatings (48). Accompanying applications that accept beneath acrimonious requirements accommodate CNT thin-film heaters, such as for defrosting windows or sidewalks. All of the aloft coatings are actuality pursued industrially (see table S3).

High-quality SWNTs are adorable for transistors because of their low electron drop and their bandgap, which depends on bore and chiral angle. Further, SWNTs are accordant with field-effect transistor (FET) architectures and high-k dielectrics (26, 49). Afterwards the aboriginal CNT transistor in 1998 (50), milestones accommodate the aboriginal SWNT-tunneling FET with a subthreshold beat of <60 mV decade–1 in 2004 (49, 51) and CNT-based radios in 2007 (52). In 2012, SWNT FETs with sub-10-nm approach lengths showed a normalized accepted anatomy (2.41 mA μm–1 at 0.5 V), which is greater than those acquired for silicon accessories (53).

Despite the able achievement of alone SWNT devices, ascendancy of CNT diameter, chirality, density, and adjustment charcoal bereft for dent production, abnormally over ample areas. Therefore, accessories such as transistors absolute blooming films of tens to bags of SWNTs are added anon practical. The use of CNT arrays increases achievement accepted and compensates for defects and chirality differences, convalescent accessory accord and reproducibility (26). For example, transistors appliance angular accumbent CNT arrays accomplished mobilities of 80 cm2 V−1 s−1, subthreshold slopes of 140 mV decade–1, and on/off ratios as aerial as 105 (54). These developments are accurate by contempo methods for absolute high-density CNT blur degradation methods, enabling accepted semiconductor artifact of added than 10,000 CNT accessories in a distinct dent (55).

CNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) are decidedly adorable for alive amoebic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays, because they accept apparent college advancement than baggy silicon (~1 cm2 V−1 s−1) (56) and can be deposited by low-temperature, nonvacuum methods. Recently, adjustable CNT TFTs with a advancement of 35 cm2 V–1 s–1 and an on/off adjustment of 6 × 106 were approved (Fig. 3A) (56). A vertical CNT FET showed acceptable accepted achievement to drive OLEDs at low voltage (57), enabling red-green-blue discharge by the OLED through a cellophane CNT network. Able bartering development of CNT electronics includes bargain columnist of TFTs (58), as able-bodied as radio-frequency identification tags (59). Bigger compassionate of CNT apparent allure is capital for commercialization of CNT thin-film electronics; contempo developments enable, for example, careful assimilation of semiconducting SWNTs during spin-coating (60) and abridgement of acuteness to adsorbates (61).

Selected CNT applications in microelectronics. (A) Adjustable TFTs appliance CNT networks deposited by aerosol CVD. [Schematic and photograph reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Limited; scanning electron microscopy angel address of Y. Ohno] (B) CNT-based nonvolatile accidental admission anamnesis (NRAM) corpuscle bogus by appliance spin-coating and apery of a CMOS-compatible CNT solution. [Images address of Nantero, Incorporated] (C) CMOS-compatible 150-nm vertical interconnects developed by imec and Tokyo Electron Limited. [Image address of imec] (D) CNT bumps acclimated for added thermal amusement in aerial ability amplifiers. [Image address of Fujitsu Limited]

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The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors suggests that CNTs could alter Cu in microelectronic interconnects, attributable to their low scattering, aerial current-carrying capacity, and attrition to electromigration. For this, vias absolute deeply arranged (>1013 per cm2) brownish CNTs with low birthmark anatomy and low acquaintance attrition are needed. Recently, commutual metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)–compatible 150-nm-diameter interconnects (Fig. 3C) with a distinct CNT–contact aperture attrition of 2.8 kohm were approved on abounding 200-mm-diameter wafers (62). Also, as a backup for adhesive bumps, CNTs can action both as electrical leads and calefaction dissipaters for use in high-power amplifiers (Fig. 3D).

Last, a abstraction for a nonvolatile anamnesis based on alone CNT batten electromechanical switches (63) has been acclimatized for commercialization (Fig. 3B) by apery circuitous CNT attenuate films as the anatomic elements. This adapted development of ultrapure CNT suspensions that can be spin-coated and candy in automated apple-pie allowance environments and are accordingly accordant with CMOS processing standards.

MWNTs are broadly acclimated in lithium ion batteries for anthology computers and adaptable phones, appearance a aloft bartering success (64, 65). In these batteries, baby amounts of MWNT crumb are attenuated with alive abstracts and a polymer binder, such as 1 wt % CNT loading in LiCoO2 cathodes and graphite anodes. CNTs accommodate added electrical connectivity and automated integrity, which enhances amount adequacy and aeon action (64, 66, 67).

Many publications address gravimetric activity accumulator and ability densities for unpackaged batteries and supercapacitors, breadth normalization is with account to the weight of alive electrode materials. The common use of low areal densities for alive abstracts makes it difficult to appraise how such gravimetric achievement metrics chronicle to those for packaged beef (68, 69), breadth aerial areal activity accumulator and ability densities are bare for acumen aerial achievement based on absolute corpuscle weight or volume. In one of the few contempo studies for packaged cells, arresting achievement has been acquired for supercapacitors deploying forest-grown SWNTs (62) that are adhesive and accretion free; an activity anatomy of 16 Wh kg–1 and a ability anatomy of 10 kW kg–1 was acquired for a 40-F supercapacitor with a best voltage of 3.5 V. On the base of accelerated tests at up to 105°C, a 16-year lifetime was forecast. Despite these absorbing metrics, the present amount of SWNTs is a aloft roadblock to commercialization.

For ammunition cells, the use of CNTs as a agitator abutment can potentially abate Pt accepting by 60% compared with carbon atramentous (70), and benumbed CNTs may accredit ammunition beef that do not crave Pt (19, 71). For amoebic solar cells, advancing efforts are leveraging the backdrop of CNTs to abate causeless carrier recombination and enhance attrition to photooxidation (20). In the connected run, photovoltaic technologies may absorb CNT-Si heterojunctions and advantage able multiple-exciton bearing at p-n junctions formed aural alone CNTs (72). In the nearer term, bartering photovoltaics may absorb cellophane SWNT electrodes (Fig. 4C).

Energy-related applications of CNTs. (A) Mixture of MWNTs and alive crumb for array electrode. [Images reprinted by permission from John Wiley and Sons (67)] (B) Abstraction for supercapacitors based on CNT forests. [Images address of FastCap Systems Corporation] (C) Solar corpuscle appliance a SWNT-based cellophane conductor. [Images address of Eikos Incorporated] (D) Prototype carriageable baptize clarify appliance a functionalized circuitous CNT cobweb in the latest date of development. [Images address of Seldon Technologies]

An accessible appliance area of CNTs is baptize purification. Here, circuitous CNT bedding can accommodate mechanically and electrochemically able-bodied networks with controlled nanoscale porosity. These accept been acclimated to electrochemically burn amoebic contaminants (73), bacteria, and bacilli (74). Carriageable filters absolute CNT meshes accept been commercialized for ablution of attenuated bubbler baptize (Fig. 4D). Moreover, membranes appliance accumbent encapsulated CNTs with accessible ends admittance breeze through the autogenous of the CNTs, enabling aberrant low breeze attrition for both gases and liquids (75). This added permeability may accredit lower activity amount for baptize desalination by about-face assimilation in allegory to bartering polycarbonate membranes. However, very-small-diameter SWNTs are bare to adios alkali at seawater concentrations (76).

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Ongoing assimilation in CNTs as apparatus of biosensors and medical accessories is motivated by the dimensional and actinic affinity of CNTs with biomolecules, such as DNA and proteins. At the aforementioned time, CNTs accredit beaming (77) and photoacoustic imaging (78), as able-bodied as localized heating appliance near-infrared radiation (79).

SWNT biosensors can display ample changes in electrical impedance (80) and optical backdrop (81) in acknowledgment to the surrounding environment, which is about articulate by adsorption of a ambition on the CNT surface. Low apprehension banned and aerial selectivity crave engineering the CNT apparent (e.g., anatomic groups and coatings) (80) and adapted sensor architecture (e.g., acreage effects, capacitance, Raman ashen shifts, and photoluminescence) (82, 83). Articles beneath development accommodate ink-jet–printed analysis strips for estrogen and progesterone detection, microarrays for DNA and protein detection, and sensors for NO2 and cardiac troponin (84). Similar CNT sensors accept been acclimated for gas and adulteration apprehension in the aliment industry, military, and ecology applications (82, 85).

For in vivo applications, CNTs can be internalized by cells, aboriginal by bounden of their tips to receptors on the corpuscle film (86). This enables transfection of atomic burden absorbed to the CNT walls or encapsulated central the CNTs (87). For example, the blight biologic doxorubicin was loaded at up to 60 wt % on CNTs compared with 8 to 10 wt % on liposomes (88). Burden absolution can be triggered by appliance near-infrared radiation. However, for use of free-floating CNTs it will be analytical to ascendancy the assimilation of CNTs aural the anatomy and anticipate abominable accumulation, which may aftereffect from alteration CNT apparent allure (89).

Potential CNT toxicity charcoal a concern, although it is arising that CNT geometry and apparent allure acerb admission biocompatibility, and accordingly CNT biocompatibility may be engineerable (89). Aboriginal on, it was appear that bang of ample quantities of MWNTs into the lungs of mice could account asbestos-like pathogenicity (90). However, a afterwards abstraction appear that lung deepening acquired by bang of well-dispersed SWNTs was bush both compared with asbestos and with chapped amount in air calm in Washington, DC (91). Approaching medical accepting of CNTs requires added compassionate of allowed response, forth with analogue of acknowledgment standards for altered use cases including inhalation, injection, ingestion, and bark contact. Toward use in implants, CNT forests anchored in a polymer were advised by article into rats and did not appearance animated anarchic acknowledgment about to controls (92). This is auspicious for accessible use of CNTs as low-impedance neural interface electrodes (93) and for blanket of catheters to abate occlusion (94).

Most articles appliance CNTs today absorb CNT powders broadcast in polymer matrices or deposited as attenuate films; for commercialization of these products, it was capital to accommodate CNT processing with absolute accomplishment methods. Organized CNT abstracts such as forests and yarns are alpha to arch the gap amid the nanoscale backdrop of CNTs and the breadth scales of aggregate engineering materials. However, compassionate is bare of why the backdrop of CNT yarns and sheets, like thermal appliance and automated strength, abide far lower than the backdrop of alone CNTs. At an adverse limit, adjustment of alone CNTs accepting acclimatized anatomy with lithographic attention over ample substrates would be a advance for cyberbanking accessories and scanning delving tips.

According to columnist reports, abounding companies are advance in assorted applications of CNTs, such as cellophane conductors, thermal interfaces, antiballistic vests, and wind agent blades. However, generally few abstruse accommodation are released, and companies are acceptable to accumulate abstruse accommodation hidden for a actual connected time afterwards commercialization, which makes it arduous to adumbrate bazaar success. Hence, the increases in nanotube assembly accommodation and sales are an abnormally important metric for arising CNT applications (see Fig. 1).

Further automated development demands bloom and assurance standards for CNT accomplishment and use, forth with bigger quantitative assuming methods that can be implemented in assembly processes. For example, the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a SWNT advertence actual in 2011; IEEE is developing standards for CNT processing in apple-pie rooms; and in 2010 the Chinese government appear standards for MWNT assuming and administration (16). Proactively, Bayer accustomed an anatomic acknowledgment absolute of 0.05 mg m–3 for their CNTs (95). These efforts animate connected advance with caution, abnormally for CNT accomplishment operations that can potentially accomplish aerial chapped matter.

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As beyond quantities of CNT abstracts ability the customer market, it will additionally be all-important to authorize auctioning and/or reclaim procedures. CNTs may access borough decay streams, where, unless they are incinerated, cross-contamination during recycling is accessible (65). Broader partnerships amid industry, academia, and government are bare to investigate the ecology and civic appulse of CNTs throughout their action cycle.

Lastly, connected CNT analysis and development will be commutual to the acceleration of graphene. Rapid innovations in graphene amalgam and characterization—such as CVD methods and Raman spectroscopy techniques—have leveraged allegation from CNT research. Able abstracts accumulation carbon allotropes accommodate 3D CNT-graphene networks for thermal interfaces (96) and fatigue-resistant graphene-coated CNT aerogels (97). The science and applications of CNTs, alignment from apparent allure to all-embracing manufacturing, will accord to the borderland of nanotechnology and accompanying bartering articles for abounding years to come.

P. J. F. Harris, Carbon Nanotube Science – Synthesis, Properties, and Applications (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2009).

M. H. van der Veen et al., “Electrical and structural assuming of 150 nm CNT contacts with Cu damascene top metallization,” cardboard presented at the 2012 IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference, San Jose, CA, 4 to 6 June 2012.

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