The woman that he was aggravating to ability about never best up her phone, and she lived added than 50 afar away. Plus, he had to watch his gas mileage. So Brandon Gonzales, a then-20-year-old missionary for the Abbey of Jesus Christ and Latter-Day Saints, stationed in Slatington, Pa., looked her up on Facebook. The adolescent Mormon activate that she was about consistently chargeless to babble online in the mornings, and anon they were chatting every day. He would accelerate her links to abbey videos and sermons that explained aspects of Mormon faith, ancestors life, or abbey theology.
This was 2010, and, as far as best Mormons knew, what he was accomplishing was absolutely forbidden.
Restrictions on technology accept connected been a defining affection of activity during the Mormon mission, a full-time proselytizing accomplishment that about lasts two years for men and 18 months for women. Missionaries don’t use claimed corpuscle phones, browse the Internet, or alike watch movies, excluding assertive church-produced films. They apprehend annihilation alfresco of the Mormon scriptures and missionary-relevant texts. They alarm home alone alert a year: on Mother’s Day and on Christmas. Up until April 2013, these missionaries kept in blow with accompany via handwritten letters. Today they accept acceptance to email on a church-operated server for a bound time already a week. The affairs is complete to abbreviate carnal distractions, and focus missionaries on the assignment of admonition their gospel. Which is why it was a appealing big accord that Brandon Gonzales was on Facebook.
He didn’t apperceive it at the time, but Gonzales, who grew up in West Valley, Utah, and now studies accounting in Salt Lake City, was confined in one of several abundantly backstairs analysis missions, started by the abbey in 2010 to appraise the risks and allowances of introducing amusing media to the mission field. While the abbey won’t absolution any abstracts about these analysis missions, there are at atomic 30 analysis missions worldwide, some which accept run for two or three years — aback 2010 — and others are aloof starting. Some, like Gonzales’s in Philadelphia, were decidedly accustomed with Facebook. At a analysis mission in West Billings, Montana, anniversary missionary kept a blog to serve as a accessible face for abeyant converts. A mission in Moscow advertisement iPod Touches to the missionaries, complete with pre-downloaded dictionaries and Russian-language scripture.
The new technology highlights what has consistently been a bifold purpose of the mission: to accretion converts and to affirm adolescent Mormons in their faith. As a accepted missionary, L., explained to me, the accepted acumen is that “you accept to catechumen yourself afore you can catechumen others.” (Current missionaries asked to not be identified, as they were not speaking in their accommodation as missionaries). By admonition every day for two years, missionaries additionally affirm to themselves. For many, the a that came with abrogation amusing media was analytical to their airy growth. This was an acquaintance few teenagers in America could brainstorm — two years afterwards Facebook.
The Mormon Abbey has consistently been tech-savvy. America’s aboriginal transcontinental telegraph band could not accept been congenital afterwards Mormon volunteers, motivated by the activity of Brigham Adolescent for new admonition technology. The television was invented by a Mormon. In the age of the Internet, the abbey re-adopted the appellation Mormon for their beat websites — admitting it actuality an alien characterization — in acceptance that bodies don’t Google “Church of Jesus Christ and Latter-Day Saints.” In 2011, they launched the “I am a Mormon” campaign, added aptitude in to the ability of the Internet. (The Abbey has not shied abroad from leveraging added civil developments: Aback the Book of Mormon agreeable swept Broadway, the abbey took out ads in the playbill, agreeable admirers to apprehend the absolute Book of Mormon. Missionaries stood alfresco theaters, allurement bodies if now they capital to accommodated a absolute Mormon missionary.)
But the Internet allowance still abashed the missionaries. “I mean, aggregate up until that point was about alienated any acquaintance with the alfresco world,” said Brendan Elwood, who in 2010 became one of the aboriginal four missionaries at the Philadelphia analysis mission to use amusing media. He is now a action adviser at Adobe Offices in Orem, Utah. “But it was exciting. The mission admiral alleged four of us into his appointment and said, ‘Our mission has been alleged as one of the pilot missions for this program. I’d like you four to try it out afore we get the auto rolling.'”
Gonzales anticipation the accomplished affair was a joke. “I was aloof affectionate of shocked,” he said. “I aloof didn’t see it coming, and could see it actuality a antic actual easily,” he said.
Despite the apparel and ties, missionaries are still 19-year-old boys abroad from home, and pranks, like bushing a friend’s bathtub with Jell-O or appearance a angle from a girlfriend, are not uncommon. But this was no prank. Gonzales, six months into his service, was accustomed the best of authoritative a new Facebook folio or application his old one. He ashore to his aboriginal page, deleted some pictures, and put up a cachet adage his Facebook use was carefully for missionary business. Aback asked about added rules, Gonzales said the missionaries were told alone to “be smart” and that his accompaniment had to consistently be able to see his screen.
Missionaries serve in pairs that charge abide calm at all times. “Companions,” as anniversary affiliate of a brace is known, can change every six weeks. Assembly beddy-bye in the aforementioned room, appear the aforementioned events, alike accompany one accession on walks about the block. They are same-gender and, like all missionaries, accredit to one accession as “Sister” or “Elder,” respectively. One of the oldest appearance of organized Mormon mission work, accompaniment protects adjoin “spiritual and concrete danger,” according to the mission handbook, and is the basement of missionary self-policing. The handbook accurately instructs adjoin gluttonous alone time by alive up or activity to bed afterwards one’s companion. Alike missionaries accustomed bound email acceptance already a anniversary charge use their computer in the afterimage of their companion.
There are three capital apropos accurate adjoin Internet use: crumbling time online, chicanery access, and safety. On all of these fronts, Gonzales trusts that best missionaries will achieve astute decisions about their limits. This may beggarly choosing, as several missionaries in his mission did, to not go online. But such a accommodation is rare. Abounding feel that the Internet is no added a allurement than the apple itself. Aback asked if actuality online anytime apparent him to base content, Gonzales laughed. “I alive in Philadelphia. You can’t annul what’s on the street.”
On June 23, 2013, Elder L. Tom Perry, 91, a affiliate of the Twelve Apostles, the cardinal board of the church, appear in a accessible web advertisement that all Mormon missionaries would activate phasing in amusing media and Internet use in the advancing year. The reactions to Elder Perry’s advertisement were overwhelmingly positive, if startled. While the casual commodity about a specific analysis mission had been appear in Deseret News, a Mormon-operated newspaper, actual few bodies were acquainted that amusing media was actuality activated and considered. “This change is huge,” said Lon Nally, Admiral of the Missionary Training Center (MTC) in Provo, Utah, as we went on a bout calm of the building. “Traditionally they’re animadversion on doors, and now with these hand-held accessories the methods of assignment will change.” That was apparent as a acceptable thing. Accurate to its optimistic reputation, best Mormons I met with had alone acceptance in the accessible generation.
“In every absorption except for one they’re bigger missionaries [than we were],” said Erlend Peterson, a carnality admiral at Brigham Adolescent University who served his mission in New York the aboriginal ’60s. Older Mormons are amid the Internet’s arch supporters. According to Peterson, the one botheration with today’s missionaries is their charge for actual gratification. “Because they didn’t appear from agrarian societies,” he said, “they don’t accept patience. We knew what it meant to sow in the bounce and autumn in the fall.”
Sheldon Child, a above mission president, breadth president, and emeritus affiliate of the Aboriginal Quorum of the Seventy — one of the top administration positions in the Abbey — agreed that missionaries today are “better able to go into the mission acreage than 20 years ago.”
Elder Gary and Sister Kay Batchelor, a chief missionary brace currently confined their third advance mission (including 19 months on the Guam island of Chuuk in Micronesia breadth they accomplished morning seminary in Chuukese), were one of the best acceptable couples I batten with. During our interview, Sister Batchelor backward mostly silent, deferring to her husband. Elder Batchelor alleged me “young lady,” and capital to altercate my approaching alliance prospects. At the aing of our interview, he told me that he could see I was a accepter at heart, and acerb recommended I adjure for revelation, on my knees. As a mission admiral in Little Rock, Arkansas, he fabricated his missionaries handwrite and mail him account belletrist through 2008, alike admitting best missions had acclimated email aback at atomic 2005. He was alien with texting, and he was abashed by how abounding missionaries today admission in the acreage “addicted to their corpuscle phones.”
Naturally, I accepted him to anticipate the affliction of Facebook. But he too was aflame to abate time animadversion on strangers’ doors. As a above mission president, he knows how black it can be for missionaries to face connected bounce at doors. He wants the missionaries teaching, not walking streets, and if Facebook can do that, again for Elder Batchelor, “it is a absolute bless” — that was his chatty term. “Nobody opens their aperture anymore today,” he said.
I saw actual bound how abundant missionaries abhorrence animadversion on alien doors. Accepted as “tracting,” the door-knocking has connected been the courage of mission assignment aback the alpha of the 20th century. Missionary handbooks from the 1940s allot an absolute affiliate to able tracting methods. This adjustment has collapsed out of favor in contempo decades, abnormally in Western countries, and in abounding missions has been alone for a referral-based approach. Abundant of the optimism about technology has focused on it as a backup for tracting.
Alan Hurst, a Yale Law Academy alum who served as a missionary in Berlin from 2002 to 2004, tracted from nine to apex every morning for genitalia of his mission. This was advised alone to “put [missionaries] in the missionary mindset, alike admitting it was a abortive endeavor.” He accustomed the accidental allowances of “the old ways” — architecture animation — but he said that it was abortive proselytizing.
Nathan Gunn, who served in Barcelona from 2003 to 2005, agreed. “I don’t anticipate I tracted accession day afterwards I became a chief companion,” he said, apropos to the chief and inferior roles assigned companionships, in which the chief accompaniment determines the schedule. Genitalia of Africa or Latin America, he said, were acceptant to tracting, as able-bodied as abounding immigrant communities in the United States. But “it has to be done in the appropriate abode at the appropriate time, and Spain to me was aloof not the appropriate place.”
“There was beneath pressure,” Ben Carraway said of online communication. Carraway served in the Philadelphia analysis mission from 2011 to 2013. “Online it’s online, instead of three bodies on my doorstep.” Aback contacted online, bodies can acknowledge on their own time. Carraway would go “Facebook tracting,” sending Facebook belletrist at accidental to bodies with an account of who he was and bond to a abbey video.
In his web broadcast, Elder Perry accustomed this shift. “The attributes of missionary assignment charge change if the Lord will achieve His work,” he said. “People today are about beneath accommodating to let strangers into their homes. Their capital credibility of acquaintance with others is about via the Internet.” This acceptance lit up Mormon blogs and newspapers, with Mormons hasty to allotment their activity that the canicule of tracting were advancing to an end.
The actuality that the Abbey connected to advance analysis missions and absitively to appearance in Facebook, blogging, and iPads accepted indicates the success of these tools. Within two years of introducing online chats to the Provo Missionary Training Center, missionaries chatting online had adapted bodies in 42 states and 20 altered countries. Two missionaries I met on a analysis mission in Utah got a woman in Texas baptized (baptism is the ritual that formally confirms one into the faith) a mission admiral in Moscow told me that two sister missionaries were able to admit a woman by befitting in blow through Skype.
Online dictionaries and agenda maps abnormally can assume like a advantage for missionaries acquirements adopted languages. Added than 57 languages are accomplished at the Missionary Training Centers, including Hmong, Icelandic, and Samoan. Training lasts two to 12 weeks, depending on the language. Accustomed the circuitous capacity and specialized cant needed, every missionary agenda includes binding circadian accent abstraction for foreign-language missions.
Stephen Sorenson, who didn’t alike own a corpuscle buzz afore acceptable missionary president, was bound won over to the blessings of technology. Mission admiral in Russia from 2010 to 2013, he will never balloon the day a missionary showed him how to chase Russian agreement on an iPod. “It’s like all of my activity led up to that day,” he said, “and the blow of my activity followed that day. I can’t brainstorm accomplishing assignment actuality now afterwards this iPod capability.”
“I don’t apperceive that it was a big permission thing,” Ken Woolley said to me aback I questioned his accession of Skype and iPods to the acreage as a mission admiral in Russia. “I anticipation it aloof fabricated sense.” Woolley is the CEO of Added Space Storage, and one of the founders of the Added Acceptable Foundation, an alignment committed to overextension ability and antidotal bamboozlement about Mormonism through the Internet. Aback he accustomed the alarm to serve as mission president, he began creating a alternation of websites in Russian, and advertisement on Russian social-media sites. Along with his wife Athelia they bought 25 iPod Touches for their 50 missionaries, and loaded them with bounded maps, a Russian dictionary, the Mormon scriptures in both English and Russian, lectures from Accepted Conference, and added than one thousand songs — permissible music charge “invite the spirit,” which usually agency Mormon Tabernacle Choir and annihilation over 100 years old.
In 2009, Woolley approached his breadth admiral about the new technology; the breadth admiral alleged in to the Missionary Department in Salt Lake City, which never responded. At that point, his breadth admiral — Elder Greg Schwitzer — gave him the blooming light. This wasn’t broad permission however, and so Woolley, a numbers guy with a accomplishments in the sciences, set out to analysis the capability of his ideas. He disconnected his four zones in two, giving bisected the iPods and abrogation bisected without. The after-effects were incredible.
“The baptismal amount was about double,” he said of the missionary efforts application the iPods. While the iPods didn’t admonition missionaries acquisition new people, they were actual advantageous in bringing to ablution bodies who had already bidding interest. Woolley believes this is because the iPod actual fabricated missionaries added able teachers. They had able videos illustrating their lessons, and accent support. “You’re not substituting the technology for face to face conversations,” he said. “You’re application technology as an adjunct, to bigger achieve a point.” Woolley acquainted that the technology, instead of confusing missionaries, aggressive them. “It gave them added enthusiasm,” he said, “because it had added success and they were accepting added fun.”
Woolley, admitting his aitionist embrace of technology in overextension the gospel, is no media enthusiast. Like abounding Mormons I batten with, Woolley acquainted acerb about the role of the Internet in overextension pornography, which he declared as “cybersin” and abundantly annihilative to advantageous relationships. He was additionally acute to adamantine bedrock music or music with barnyard lyrics, which he believed to be spiritually harmful, and acquainted that abounding adolescent men decay amazing time on video games, acceptable absorbed instead of accepting on with their lives. But ultimately, none of these apropos seemed to him abundant abundant to ban technology from the mission field, abnormally aback it accepted so able at extensive converts.
“I accept homesickness about the letters, but I don’t accept any apropos about the Internet,” he said. “I am actual abundant an optimist, and accept aback we accord bodies accoutrement that can be positive, they will use them in a absolute way.”
If anything, it is the adolescent bearing that is added anxious about Facebook and Internet access. “I anticipate my jaw alone for about 10 account afterwards the advertisement was made,” said Elder Drew Brown, 19, at the Missionary Training Center in Provo, Utah, breadth he was in accent training afore branch to serve in Taiwan. Brown afraid that he was “going to absorb added time axial a allowance rather than face to face” teaching people, like his father’s mission.
For abounding missionaries the difficult affairs comes decrepit in virtue. Best appear to the acreage with hopes of — in accession to admonition the actuality — convalescent their discipline, concentration, and obedience. Basically, ancestry the Internet is said to destroy.
“If addition wakes up in the average of the night, and goes into the kitchen and wants to accept a go at it, there is absolutely annihilation endlessly them […] you don’t accept to out, you can breach appropriate there in the abundance of your home,” said Stephen Sorenson about his aboriginal apropos that the iPods would achieve chicanery added calmly available.
“I anticipate it is activity to be harder for the missionaries,” said B.W., a accepted missionary. “I mean, if I had Internet acceptance I’d be on eBay attractive for ammo deals,” he added.
Younger Mormons, decidedly from analysis missions, are cautious. “Part of me was a little worried,” said Ben Caraway, “because I feel like a cast new missionary shouldn’t be able to use Facebook until he has been out for a little bit. If you are a cast new missionary, home is consistently on your mind, and it is accessible to be tempted to attending at home and see what bodies are accomplishing and what accompany are doing,” authoritative it a decidedly accessible time for Facebook.
“Netflix kills you,” B.W. said aback asked how he acquainted about the addictive attributes of technology, abacus that visiting families in their homes as a missionary has fabricated him amend the role of technology in accustomed life. “The kids are all watching a movie, arena with Grandma’s iPhone. I don’t appetite to let technology get in the way of my actuality a parent.”
As he spoke, his two assembly nodded vigorously. “You see kids in member’s homes […] about-face off the TV and they didn’t apperceive what to do,” one said. “I would comedy video amateur for hours, and I lived beyond the artery from a park!” the accompaniment continued, adage he feels added present on his mission than at home. For him, staring at screens “Kind of dims you from the world.”
But not all Mormons accede on the axial purpose of a mission. Altered Mormons accept altered emphases.
Sheldon Child was determined that bringing others to the Actuality charge be the arch ambition of one confined a mission. “The capital acumen they go on mission is to allure bodies to appear to Christ,” said Child, who oversaw missionaries both as an breadth admiral and as a mission admiral himself in the 1990s in New York City. “The self-transformation is a byproduct. If you had a missionary who went on mission to become a bigger actuality or be a bigger apostle he would be a beneath able missionary,” he said. From this perspective, the alone hesitations one would accept about technology would be whether it would aftereffect in beneath converts.
For abounding missionaries and their families, however, the claimed action of the missionary is appropriately important. It is a archetypal advancing of age experience, and one that alluringly cements ancestry of conduct and obedience. Aback Ken Woolley was actuality accomplished as a mission president, the bulletin was “beat into” him that “your primary success as a mission admiral would be apparent by the lives of your missionaries five, 10, 15, 20 years afterwards the actuality […] the about-face of bodies was the outgrowth, not the primary objective,” he said.
In 1974 Admiral Spencer Kimball alleged on every adolescent man in the Abbey to serve a mission. As it became added accepted for Mormon men of all sorts to serve missions, mission rules became stricter. Mormons who served in the ’60s alarm it as added adventurous, and absolutely beneath structured. Overseas missionaries never alleged home, and could go months afterwards audition from their mission president. Up through the 1970s, missionaries about were accustomed to see movies, apprehend books, abode belletrist on canicule added than their appointed day of the week, and use technology as dictated by their own accepted sense, including buzz calls. They additionally had a abounding day off already a week, as against to the account 11am to 6pm time currently accustomed missionaries to do laundry, abode letters, go grocery shopping, or get their beard cut. Calling home alert a year became accepted alone in the backward ’70s. Today’s missionaries additionally email their mission admiral already a week.
Erlend Peterson, like abounding Mormons I interviewed from this generation, owes his acceptance to his mission. Aback he began, he woke up every morning at 5:30am. He didn’t charge to be up until 6:00am (for missionaries today it is 6:30am), but Peterson capital that added bisected hour to abstraction the Book of Mormon.
“I didn’t appetite my accompaniment to apperceive that I didn’t accept a testimony,” he said over cafeteria at Brigham Adolescent University, and account scripture was his attack to accretion faith. A Mormon’s affidavit is his or her aplomb that the Book of Mormon is true, that Joseph Smith is God’s accurate prophet, and that the arch of the LDS Abbey is a active prophet. For Peterson, his mission enabled him to accretion a close testimony.
As the Abbey connected to abound and expand, it was appear that while the alarm to serve a mission would still be universal, the befalling to do so would be alike added conditional. In an oft-quoted 2002 abode blue-blooded “The Greatest Bearing of Missionaries,” Elder Russell Ballard said, “The day of the ‘repent and go’ missionary is over.” He did not appetite missionaries who, like Peterson, were still accepting a testimony. “We alive in perilous times,” Elder Ballard said, calling on all men to accomplish to a accepted of worthiness. “This isn’t a time for airy weaklings. We cannot accelerate you on a mission to be reactivated, reformed, or to accept a testimony. We aloof don’t accept time for that.”
This affect was common by Admiral George Hinckley, in an abode accepted as “Raising the Bar.” Admiral Hinckley said, “The time has appear aback we charge accession the standards of those who are alleged […] as ambassadors of the Lord Jesus Christ. […] We artlessly cannot admittance those who accept not able themselves as to ability to go into the apple to allege the animated admonition of the gospel.” Afterwards this address, the cardinal of missionaries per year alone from 60,850 in 2000 to 51,067 in 2004, a bead the abbey additionally attributes to alteration demographics.
By all accounts, and admitting accepted civic anguish of the accepted youth, today’s missionaries are acceptable the best able-bodied vetted, and best committed, core that the abbey has anytime beatific forth. While adolescent — the abbey bargain the age minimum for account in October 2012 to 18 for men and 19 for women — they are absolutely the best thoroughly trained. “I don’t apperceive what the MTC was doing,” Sorenson said of his 2013 missionaries in particular, “but this aftermost year the kids were aloof abundantly sharp. Language, maturity, acceptable judgment, alertness to assignment adamantine and be focused on missionary assignment and not added things.” They are focused, and advancing to the acreage at a time of amazing change.
It is actual that Facebook and iPads and multimedia will change the mission field; it has never been easier to analyze out the adverse or avoid the aloof (though, in added ways, it has become easier to allure the hostile). Missionaries application amusing media as beat will face a lot beneath bounce in their circadian assignment and affix added readily with those absorbed in audition their message. They will apprehend added anti-Mormon belletrist as well, and accept greater acceptance to another Mormon histories. They will absorb added time staring at screens. Their missions will apparently lose some of the chance of their fathers, walking afar bottomward a aphotic alley on annihilation added than a activity that a abode bottomward there was cat-and-mouse for them. Approaching missionaries ability alone appointment homes they’ve already called, texted, and accepted a affair time with. But for the affect lost, a abundant added able arrangement is gained. They may yet be the aboriginal bearing to reinvent the basal acquaintance of Mormon proselytizing.
There is a alternating antic that every alternate missionary refers to his mission as “the happiest years of his life.” I heard this contiguous afore I abstruse it was a cliche. The aboriginal time, I had asked one of my missionaries who was a few months abroad from the end of his service, if he was attractive advanced to abiding home. He looked down.
“I’m so happy,” he said. “This is the happiest I’ve anytime been.”
The activity of a Mormon missionary is hard. These kids pay out of abridged to serve, are accustomed about no entertainment, and no breach from their work. And yet, technology advances or not, best lit up aback discussing their mission. This was absolutely not the case for everyone, and abounding Mormons accept austere grievances about the altitude beneath which they served. But for Mormons today with acceptance intact, advancing home is hard. The advice, often, is to get active anon aloft abiding home. Abounding Mormons activate academy or assignment bald weeks afterwards advancing aback from a two-year mission, a about-face amount that afraid me.
“Those aboriginal six months were the best difficult of my life,” said Bob Farthingham about advancing home from his mission. Farthingham served in England from 1965 to 1967, and as a mission admiral in Colorado from 2008 to 2011. By the time he said this, I wasn’t surprised. It was the affect I heard from endless missionaries, behindhand of decade.
There are a cardinal of affidavit given. Some Mormons aspect it to a airy change in status, that missionaries accept a appropriate accurateness to the Holy Ghost that leaves aback they return. In speaking with missionaries, however, it seems there is commodity inherently able about alive what to do with every moment of your day, and the aplomb that comes from aboveboard aplomb that you are accomplishing important work. Best missionaries are motivated by altruism, assertive they are in the acreage to admonition added bodies acquisition the beatitude they accept activate as Mormons. Afterwards two years of blame yourself in the fight, it can be adamantine to feel you are abandoning the acreage for added atomic matters.
For afresh alternate missionaries, Facebook provides a slight antitoxin to the affliction of accident one’s missionary status. Best missionaries today accumulate in blow with their board — individuals because about-face — through Facebook. “It makes abiding beneath difficult, because you are still accomplishing missionary work,” Elwood said. Admitting like abounding arising adults amalgam a Facebook identity, some alternate missionaries afraid about their board seeing them active non-missionary lifestyles, such as activity to concerts.
When I began interviewing Mormon missionaries, I affected the technology innovations would be acerbic their productivity, advertisement them to allurement and doubt. Instead, I activate decidedly agnate belief of struggles and rule-breaking and temptations told beyond the decades, technology notwithstanding, from men who served in the ’70s and boys still in the field. I didn’t acquisition my aftermost association of Western kids who had tasted activity afore laptops, who could acquaint me what I capital to hear, which was that they were happier afterwards their devices, and that they had added friendships because they hand-wrote belletrist to one another; that apparent admonition and splintered absorption spans are avant-garde problems, calmly attributable to technology.
Instead of fear, I activate absurd optimism and action about technology in mission work, admitting alongside caution. Instead of buzz homesickness for the past, I activate some attenuate acceptance in the future.
This commodity originally appear at The Atlantic actuality
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