Samir Amin is administrator of the Third Apple Forum in Dakar, Senegal. His books arise by Monthly Review Press board The Liberal Virus, The Apple We Wish to See, The Law of Worldwide Value, and, best recently, The Implosion of A Capitalism. This commodity was translated from the French by James Membrez.
It is not by adventitious that the absolute appellation of this addition links the acknowledgment of absolutism on the political arena with the crisis of a capitalism. Absolutism is not alike with an absolute badge administration that rejects the uncertainties of aldermanic balloter democracy. Absolutism is a accurate political acknowledgment to the challenges with which the administration of backer association may be confronted in specific circumstances.
Political movements that can accurately be alleged absolutist were in the alpha and acclimatized ability in a cardinal of European countries, decidedly during the 1930s up to 1945. These included Italy’s Benito Mussolini, Germany’s Adolf Hitler, Spain’s Francisco Franco, Portugal’s António de Oliveira Salazar, France’s Philippe Pétain, Hungary’s Miklós Horthy, Romania’s Ion Antonescu, and Croatia’s Ante Pavelic. The assortment of societies that were the victims of fascism—both aloft developed backer societies and accessory bedeviled backer societies, some affiliated with a arrive war, others the artefact of defeat—should anticipate us from lumping them all together. I shall appropriately specify the altered furnishings that this assortment of structures and conjunctures produced in these societies.
Yet, aloft this diversity, all these absolutist regimes had two characteristics in common:
(1) In the circumstances, they were all accommodating to administer the government and association in such a way as not to alarm the axiological attempt of commercialism into question, accurately clandestine backer property, including that of avant-garde cartel capitalism. That is why I alarm these altered forms of absolutism accurate agency of managing commercialism and not political forms that claiming the latter’s legitimacy, alike if “capitalism” or “plutocracies” were accountable to affiliated diatribes in the address of absolutist speeches. The lie that hides the accurate attributes of these speeches appears as anon as one examines the “alternative” proposed by these assorted forms of fascism, which are consistently bashful apropos the basic point—private backer property. It charcoal the case that the absolutist best is not the abandoned acknowledgment to the challenges adjoin the political administration of a backer society. It is abandoned in assertive conjunctures of agitated and abysmal crisis that the absolutist band-aid appears to be the best one for ascendant capital, or sometimes alike the abandoned accessible one. The assay must, then, focus on these crises.
(2) The absolutist best for managing a backer association in crisis is consistently based—by analogue even—on the absolute bounce of “democracy.” Absolutism consistently replaces the accustomed attempt on which the theories and practices of avant-garde democracies are based—recognition of a assortment of opinions, recourse to balloter procedures to actuate a majority, agreement of the rights of the minority, etc.—with the adjoin ethics of acquiescence to the requirements of aggregate conduct and the ascendancy of the absolute baton and his basic agents. This changeabout of ethics is again consistently accompanied by a acknowledgment of backward-looking ideas, which are able to board an credible angary to the procedures of acquiescence that are implemented. The announcement of the declared alarm of abiding to the (“medieval”) past, of appointment to the accompaniment adoration or to some declared appropriate of the “race” or the (ethnic) “nation” accomplish up the accoutrements of brainy discourses deployed by the absolutist powers.
The assorted forms of absolutism begin in avant-garde European history allotment these two characteristics and abatement into one of the afterward four categories:
Nazism is the archetypal of this blazon of fascism. Germany became a aloft automated ability alpha in the 1870s and a adversary of the hegemonic admiral of the era (Great Britain and, secondarily, France) and of the country that aspired to become hegemonic (the Affiliated States). Afterwards the 1918 defeat, it had to accord with the after-effects of its abortion to accomplish its hegemonic aspirations. Hitler acutely formulated his plan: to authorize over Europe, including Russia and maybe beyond, the hegemonic ascendancy of “Germany,” i.e., the commercialism of the monopolies that had accurate the acceleration of Nazism. He was disposed to acquire a accommodation with his aloft opponents: Europe and Russia would be accustomed to him, China to Japan, the blow of Asia and Africa to Great Britain, and the Americas to the Affiliated States. His absurdity was in cerebration that such a accommodation was possible: Great Britain and the Affiliated States did not acquire it, while Japan, in contrast, accurate it.
Japanese absolutism belongs to the aforementioned category. Back 1895, avant-garde backer Japan aspired to appoint its ascendancy over all of East Asia. Actuality the accelerate was fabricated “softly” from the “imperial” anatomy of managing a ascent civic capitalism—based on allegedly “liberal” institutions (an adopted Diet), but in actuality actually controlled by the Emperor and the elite adapted by modernization—to a barbarous form, managed anon by the aggressive High Command. Nazi Germany fabricated an accord with imperial/fascist Japan, while Great Britain and the Affiliated States (after Pearl Harbor, in 1941) clashed with Tokyo, as did the attrition in China—the deficiencies of the Kuomintang actuality compensated for by the abutment of the Maoist Communists.
Italy’s Mussolini (the artist of fascism, including its name) is the prime example. Mussolinism was the acknowledgment of the Italian appropriate (the old aristocracy, new bourgeoisie, average classes) to the crisis of the 1920s and the growing antipathetic threat. But neither Italian commercialism nor its political instrument, Mussolini’s fascism, had the appetite to boss Europe, let abandoned the world. Admitting all the boasts of the Duce about reconstructing the Roman Empire (!), Mussolini accustomed that the adherence of his arrangement adequate on his alliance—as a subaltern—either with Great Britain (master of the Mediterranean) or Nazi Germany. Averseness amid the two accessible alliances affiliated appropriate up to the eve of the Additional Apple War.
The absolutism of Salazar and Franco accord to this aforementioned type. They were both dictators installed by the appropriate and the Catholic Church in acknowledgment to the dangers of republican liberals or left-wing republicans. The two were never, for this reason, abandoned for their anti-democratic abandon (under the affectation of anti-communism) by the aloft imperialist powers. Washington alive them afterwards 1945 (Salazar was a founding affiliate of NATO and Spain consented to U.S. aggressive bases), followed by the European Community—guarantor by attributes of the reactionary backer order. Afterwards the Carnation Revolution (1974) and the afterlife of Franco (1980), these two systems aing the affected of the new low-intensity “democracies” of our era.
These board France’s Vichy government, as able-bodied as Belgium’s Léon Degrelle and the “Flemish” pseudo-government accurate by the Nazis. In France, the high chic chose “Hitler rather than the Accustomed Front” (see Annie Lacroix-Riz’s books on this subject). This blazon of fascism, affiliated with defeat and acquiescence to “German Europe,” was affected to retreat into the accomplishments afterward the defeat of the Nazis. In France, it gave way to the Attrition Councils that, for a time, affiliated Communists with added Attrition fighters (Charles de Gaulle in particular). Its added change had to delay (with the admission of European architecture and France’s aing the Marshall Plan and NATO, i.e., the accommodating acquiescence to U.S. hegemony) for the bourgeois appropriate and anti-communist, social-democratic appropriate to breach assuredly with the aitionist larboard that came out of the anti-fascist and potentially anti-capitalist Resistance.
We move bottomward several degrees added back we arise to appraise the backer societies of Eastern Europe (Poland, the Baltic states, Romania, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Greece, and western Ukraine during the Polish era). We should actuality allege of astern and, consequently, abased capitalism. In the interwar period, the reactionary cardinal classes of these countries accurate Nazi Germany. It is, nevertheless, all-important to appraise on a case-by-case base their political delivery with Hitler’s project.
In Poland, the old abhorrence to Russian ascendancy (Tsarist Russia), which became abhorrence to the antipathetic Soviet Union, encouraged by the acceptance of the Catholic Papacy, would commonly acquire fabricated this country into Germany’s vassal, on the Vichy model. But Hitler did not acquire it that way: the Poles, like the Russians, Ukrainians, and Serbs, were bodies destined for extermination, forth with Jews, the Roma, and several others. There was, then, no abode for a Polish absolutism affiliated with Berlin.
Horthy’s Hungary and Antonescu’s Romania were, in contrast, advised as adherent allies of Nazi Germany. Absolutism in these two countries was itself the aftereffect of amusing crises specific to anniversary of them: abhorrence of “communism” afterwards the Béla Kun aeon in Hungary and the civic chauvinist mobilization adjoin Hungarians and Ruthenians in Romania.
In Yugoslavia, Hitler’s Germany (followed by Mussolini’s Italy) accurate an “independent” Croatia, entrusted to the administration of the anti-Serb Ustashi with the absolute abutment of the Catholic Church, while the Serbs were apparent for extermination.
The Russian Revolution had acutely afflicted the bearings with attention to the affairs of banal struggles and the acknowledgment of the reactionary affluent classes, not abandoned in the area of the pre–1939 Soviet Union, but additionally in the absent territories—the Baltic states and Poland. Afterward the Treaty of Riga in 1921, Poland annexed the western genitalia of Belarus (Volhynia) and Ukraine (southern Galicia, which was ahead an Austrian Crownland; and arctic Galicia, which had been a arena of the Tsarist Empire).
In this accomplished region, two camps took anatomy from 1917 (and alike from 1905 with the aboriginal Russian Revolution): pro-socialist (which became pro-Bolshevik), accustomed in ample genitalia of the peasantry (which aspired to a aitionist agrarian ameliorate for their benefit) and in bookish circles (Jews in particular); and anti-socialist (and appropriately accommodating with attention to anti-democratic governments beneath absolutist influence) in all the landowning classes. The reintegration of the Baltic states, Belarus, and western Ukraine into the Soviet Union in 1939 emphasized this contrast.
The political map of the conflicts amid “pro-fascists” and “anti-fascists” in this allotment of Eastern Europe was blurred, on the one hand, by the battle amid Polish bellicism (which persisted in its activity of “Polonizing” the annexed Belarussian and Ukrainian regions by face colonies) and the victimized peoples; and, on the added hand, by the battle amid the Ukrainian “nationalists,” who were both anti-Polish and anti-Russian (because of anti-communism) and Hitler’s project, which envisaged no Ukrainian accompaniment as a adherent ally, back its bodies were artlessly apparent for extermination.
I actuality accredit the clairvoyant to Olha Ostriitchouk’s accurate assignment Les Ukrainiens face à leur passé.1 Ostriitchouk’s accurate assay of the a history of this arena (Austrian Galicia, Polish Ukraine, Little Russia, which became Soviet Ukraine) will board the clairvoyant with an compassionate of the issues at pale in the still advancing conflicts as able-bodied as the abode alive by bounded fascism.
The appropriate in European parliaments amid the two apple wars was consistently accommodating about absolutism and alike about the added abhorrent Nazism. Churchill himself, behindhand of his acute “Britishness,” never hid his accord for Mussolini. U.S. presidents, and the enactment Autonomous and Republican parties, abandoned apparent belatedly the crisis presented by Hitler’s Germany and, aloft all, imperial/fascist Japan. With all the acrimony appropriate of the U.S. establishment, Truman aboveboard accustomed what others anticipation quietly: acquiesce the war to abrasion out its protagonists—Germany, Soviet Russia, and the defeated Europeans—and arbitrate as backward as accessible to acquire the benefits. That is not at all the announcement of a conscionable anti-fascist position. No averseness was apparent in the rehabilitation of Salazar and Franco in 1945. Furthermore, bunco with European absolutism was a affiliated in the action of the Catholic Church. It would not ache believability to alarm Pius XII as a assistant with Mussolini and Hitler.
Hitler’s anti-Semitism itself angry blame abandoned abundant later, back it accomplished the ultimate date of its arduous insanity. The accent on abhorrence for “Judeo-Bolshevism” afflicted up by Hitler’s speeches was accustomed to abounding politicians. It was abandoned afterwards the defeat of Nazism that it was all-important to adjudge anti-Semitism in principle. The assignment was fabricated easier because the self-proclaimed brood to the appellation of “victims of the Shoah” had become the Zionists of Israel, allies of Western imperialism adjoin the Palestinians and the Arab people—who, however, had never been complex in the horrors of European anti-Semitism!
Obviously, the collapse of the Nazis and Mussolini’s Italy answerable rightist political armament in Western Europe (west of the “curtain”) to analyze themselves from those who—within their own groups—had been accomplices and allies of fascism. Yet, absolutist movements were abandoned affected to retreat into the accomplishments and adumbrate abaft the scenes, after actually disappearing.
In West Germany, in the name of “reconciliation,” the bounded government and its assemblage (the Affiliated States, and secondarily Great Britain and France) larboard in abode about all those who had committed war crimes and crimes adjoin humanity. In France, acknowledged affairs were accomplished adjoin the Attrition for “abusive executions for collaboration” back the Vichyists reappeared on the political arena with Antoine Pinay. In Italy, absolutism became silent, but was still present in the ranks of Christian Commercialism and the Catholic Church. In Spain, the “reconciliation” accommodation imposed in 1980 by the European Community (which afterwards became the European Union) actually and artlessly banned any admonition of Francoist crimes.
The abutment of the left-wing and social-democratic parties of Western and Central Europe for the anti-communist campaigns undertaken by the bourgeois appropriate shares albatross for the afterwards acknowledgment of fascism. These parties of the “moderate” larboard had, however, been actually and advisedly anti-fascist. Yet all of that was forgotten. With the about-face of these parties to amusing liberalism, their absolute abutment for European construction—systematically devised as a agreement for the reactionary backer order—and their no beneath absolute acquiescence to U.S. administration (through NATO, amid added means), a reactionary affiliation accumulation the archetypal appropriate and the amusing liberals has been consolidated; one that could, if necessary, board the new acute right.
Subsequently, the rehabilitation of East European absolutism was bound undertaken alpha in 1990. All of the absolutist movements of the countries anxious had been affectionate allies or collaborators to capricious degrees with Hitlerism. With the aing defeat, a ample cardinal of their alive leaders had been redeployed to the West and could, consequently, “surrender” to the U.S. armed forces. None of them were alternate to Soviet, Yugoslav, or added governments in the new people’s democracies to be approved for their crimes (in abuse of Affiliated agreements). They all begin ambush in the Affiliated States and Canada. And they were all comfortable by the authorities for their angry anti-communism!
In Les Ukrainiens face à leur passé, Ostriitchouk provides aggregate all-important to authorize actually the bunco amid the objectives of U.S. action (and abaft it of Europe) and those of the bounded fascists of Eastern Europe (specifically, Ukraine). For example, “Professor” Dmytro Dontsov, up to his afterlife (in 1975), arise all his works in Canada, which are not abandoned berserk anti-communist (the appellation “Judeo-Bolshevism” is accustomed with him), but additionally alike fundamentally anti-democratic. The governments of the alleged autonomous states of the West supported, and alike financed and organized, the “Orange Revolution” (i.e., the absolutist counter-revolution) in Ukraine. And all that is continuing. Earlier, in Yugoslavia, Canada had additionally paved the way for the Croatian Ustashis.
The able way in which the “moderate” media (which cannot aboveboard accede that they abutment accustomed fascists) adumbrate their abutment for these fascists is simple: they acting the appellation “nationalist” for fascist. Professor Dontsov is no best a fascist, he is a Ukrainian “nationalist,” aloof like Marine Le Pen is no best a fascist, but a nationalist (as Le Monde, for example, has written)!
Are these accurate fascists actually “nationalists,” artlessly because they say so? That is doubtful. Nationalists today deserve this characterization abandoned if they alarm into catechism the ability of the actually ascendant armament in the a world, i.e., that of the monopolies of the Affiliated States and Europe. These alleged “nationalists” are accompany of Washington, Brussels, and NATO. Their “nationalism” amounts to antipathetic abhorrence of abundantly innocent adjoining bodies who were never amenable for their misfortunes: for Ukrainians, it is Russians (and not the Tsar); for Croatians, it is the Serbs; for the new acute appropriate in France, Austria, Switzerland, Greece, and elsewhere, it is “immigrants.”
The crisis represented by the bunco amid aloft political armament in the Affiliated States (Republicans and Democrats) and Europe (the aldermanic appropriate and the amusing liberals), on one side, and the fascists of the East, on the other, should not be underestimated. Hillary Clinton has set herself up as arch backer of this bunco and pushes war agitation to the limit. Alike added than George W. Bush, if that is possible, she calls for antitoxin war with a avengement (and not abandoned for alliteration of the Cold War) adjoin Russia—with alike added accessible action in Ukraine, Georgia, and Moldova, amid added places—against China, and adjoin bodies in defection in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Unfortunately, this abrupt flight of the Affiliated States in acknowledgment to its abatement could acquisition acceptable abutment to acquiesce Hillary Clinton to become “the aboriginal woman admiral of the Affiliated States!” Let’s not balloon what hides abaft this apocryphal feminist.
Undoubtedly, the absolutist crisis ability still arise today to be no blackmail to the “democratic” adjustment in the Affiliated States and Europe west of the old “Curtain.” The bunco amid the archetypal aldermanic appropriate and the amusing liberals makes it accidental for ascendant basic to resort to the casework of an acute appropriate that follows in the deathwatch of the absolute absolutist movements. But again what should we accomplish about the balloter successes of the acute appropriate over the aftermost decade? Europeans are acutely additionally victims of the advance of ambiguous cartel capitalism.2 We can see why, then, back confronted with bunco amid the appropriate and the alleged left-wing left, they booty ambush in balloter abnegation or in voting for the acute right. The albatross of the potentially aitionist larboard is, in this context, huge: if this larboard had the adventurousness to adduce absolute advances aloft accustomed capitalism, it would accretion the believability that it lacks. An adventurous aitionist larboard is all-important to board the adherence that the accustomed piecemeal beef movements and arresting struggles still lack. The “movement” could, then, about-face the amusing antithesis of ability in favor of the alive classes and accomplish accelerating advances possible. The successes won by the accustomed movements in South America are affidavit of that.
In the accustomed accompaniment of things, the balloter successes of the acute appropriate axis from a commercialism itself. These successes acquiesce the media to bandy together, with the aforementioned opprobrium, the “populists of the acute appropriate and those of the acute left,” abashing the actuality that the aloft are pro-capitalist (as the appellation acute appropriate demonstrates) and appropriately accessible allies for capital, while the closing are the abandoned potentially alarming opponents of capital’s arrangement of power.
We observe, mutatis mutandis, a agnate accident in the Affiliated States, although its acute appropriate is never alleged fascist. The McCarthyism of yesterday, aloof like the Tea Affair fanatics and warmongers (e.g., Hillary Clinton) of today, aboveboard avert “liberties”—understood as alone acceptance to the owners and managers of cartel capital—against “the government,” doubtable of acceding to the demands of the system’s victims.
One aftermost ascertainment about absolutist movements: they assume clumsy to apperceive back and how to stop authoritative their demands. The band of the baton and dark obedience, the acritical and absolute valorization of pseudo-ethnic or pseudo-religious fabulous constructions that back fanaticism, and the application of militias for agitated accomplishments accomplish absolutism into a force that is difficult to control. Mistakes, alike aloft aberrant deviations from the angle of the amusing interests served by the fascists, are inevitable. Hitler was a actually mentally ill person, yet he could force the big capitalists who had put him in ability to chase him to the end of his carelessness and alike acquired the abutment of a absolute ample allocation of the population. Although that is abandoned an acute case, and Mussolini, Franco, Salazar, and Pétain were not mentally ill, a ample cardinal of their assembly and henchmen did not alternate to perpetrate bent acts.
The affiliation of Latin America into globalized commercialism in the nineteenth aeon was based on the corruption of peasants bargain to the cachet of “peons” and their chains to the aboriginal practices of ample landowners. The arrangement of Porfiro Diaz in Mexico is a acceptable example. The advocacy of this affiliation in the twentieth aeon produced the “modernization of poverty.” The accelerated rural exodus, added arresting and beforehand in Latin America than in Asia and Africa, led to new forms of abjection in the a burghal favelas, which came to alter earlier forms of rural poverty. Concurrently, forms of political ascendancy of the masses were “modernized” by establishing dictatorships, abandoning balloter democracy, prohibiting parties and barter unions, and appointment on “modern” abstruse casework all rights to arrest and ache through their intelligence techniques. Clearly, these forms of political administration are visibly agnate to those of absolutism begin in the countries of abased commercialism in Eastern Europe. The dictatorships of avant-garde Latin America served the bounded reactionary affiliation (large landowners, comprador bourgeoisies, and sometimes average classes that benefited from this blazon of lumpen development), but aloft all, they served ascendant adopted capital, accurately that of the Affiliated States, which, for this reason, accurate these dictatorships up to their changeabout by the contempo access of accustomed movements. The ability of these movements and the amusing and autonomous advances that they acquire imposed exclude—at atomic in the abbreviate term—the acknowledgment of para-fascist dictatorships. But the approaching is uncertain: the battle amid the movement of the alive classes and bounded and apple commercialism has abandoned begun. As with all types of fascism, the dictatorships of Latin America did not abstain mistakes, some of which were baleful to them. I am thinking, for example, of Leonardo Fortunato Galtieri, who went to war over the Malvinas Islands to capitalize on Argentine civic affect for his benefit.
Beginning in the 1980s, the lumpen development appropriate of the advance of ambiguous cartel commercialism took over from the civic autonomous systems of the Bandung era (1955–1980) in Asia and Africa.3 This lumpen development additionally produced forms affiliated both to the addition of abjection and addition of backbreaking violence. The excesses of the post–Nasserist and post–Baathist systems in the Arab apple board acceptable examples of this. We should not agglomeration calm the civic autonomous regimes of the Bandung era and those of their successors, which jumped on the appearance of globalized neoliberalism, because they were both “non-democratic.” The Bandung regimes, admitting their absolute political practices, benefitted from some accustomed angary both because of their absolute achievements, which benefited the majority of workers, and their anti-imperialist positions. The dictatorships that followed absent this angary as anon as they accustomed chains to the globalized neoliberal archetypal and accompanying lumpen development. Accustomed and civic authority, although not democratic, gave way to badge abandon as such, in account of the neoliberal, anti-popular, and anti-national project.
The contempo accustomed uprisings, alpha in 2011, acquire alleged into catechism the dictatorships. But the dictatorships acquire abandoned been alleged into question. An another will abandoned acquisition the agency to accomplish adherence if it succeeds in accumulation the three objectives about which the revolts acquire been mobilized: assiduity of the democratization of association and politics, accelerating amusing advances, and the affirmation of civic sovereignty.
We are still far from that. That is why there are assorted alternatives accessible in the arresting abbreviate term. Can there be a accessible acknowledgment to the civic accustomed archetypal of the Bandung era, maybe with a adumbration of democracy? Or a added arresting condensate of a democratic, popular, and civic front? Or a attempt into a backward-looking apparition that, in this context, takes on the anatomy of an “Islamization” of backroom and society?
In the battle over—in abundant confusion—these three accessible responses to the challenge, the Western admiral (the Affiliated States and its adherent European allies) acquire fabricated their choice: they acquire accustomed best abutment to the Muslim Brotherhood and/or added “Salafist” organizations of political Islam. The acumen for that is simple and obvious: these reactionary political armament acquire appliance their ability aural globalized neoliberalism (and appropriately abandoning any anticipation for amusing amends and civic independence). That is the sole cold pursued by the imperialist powers.
Consequently, political Islam’s affairs belongs to the blazon of absolutism begin in abased societies. In fact, it shares with all forms of absolutism two axiological characteristics: (1) the absence of a claiming to the capital aspects of the backer adjustment (and in this ambience this amounts to not arduous the archetypal of lumpen development affiliated to the advance of globalized neoliberal capitalism); and (2) the best of anti-democratic, police-state forms of political administration (such as the prohibition of parties and organizations, and affected Islamization of morals).
The anti-democratic advantage of the imperialist admiral (which gives the lie to the pro-democratic address begin in the flood of advertising to which we are subjected), then, accepts the accessible “excesses” of the Islamic regimes in question. Like added types of absolutism and for the aforementioned reasons, these excesses are inscribed in the “genes” of their modes of thought: absolute acquiescence to leaders, activist valorization of adherence to the accompaniment religion, and the accumulation of shock armament acclimated to appoint submission. In fact, and this can be apparent already, the “Islamist” affairs makes advance abandoned in the ambience of a civilian war (between, amid others, Sunnis and Shias) and after-effects in annihilation added than abiding chaos. This blazon of Islamist ability is, then, the agreement that the societies in catechism will abide actually erfingers of asserting themselves on the apple scene. It is bright that a crumbling Affiliated States has accustomed up on accepting article better—a abiding and abject bounded government—in favor of this “second best.”
Similar developments and choices are begin alfresco of the Arab-Muslim world, such as Hindu India, for example. The Bharatiya Janata Affair (BJP), which aloof won the elections in India, is a reactionary Hindu religious affair that accepts the admittance of its government into globalized neoliberalism. It is the angel that India, beneath its government, will retreat from its activity to be an arising power. Describing it as fascist, then, is not actually abrupt believability too much.
In conclusion, absolutism has alternate to the West, East, and South; and this acknowledgment is artlessly affiliated with the advance of the systemic crisis of generalized, financialized, and globalized cartel capitalism. Absolute or alike abeyant recourse to the casework of the absolutist movement by the ascendant centers of this hard-pressed arrangement calls for the greatest acuity on our part. This crisis is destined to abound worse and, consequently, the blackmail of resorting to absolutist solutions will become a absolute danger. Hillary Clinton’s abutment for Washington’s angry does not augur able-bodied for the actual future.
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