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A affirmation over character cards at a Rohingya refugee affected in Bangladesh in April, 2018. Image: NurPhoto/SIPA USA/PA Images.

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In 2016, Nural, as a baton in a Rohingya apple in Rathedaung, was alleged to a affair by a baronial administrator from the Myanmar Bound Guard Police. There, Nural and the aggregate apple leaders were told all Rohingya charge now acquire character cards, accustomed as allegiance analysis cards (NVCs), or they would “no best be accustomed to abide in the country” and be “driven out”. Despite the accident of speaking out, Nural aloft his articulation in the meeting, “These NVC cards accomplish us into foreigners who are declared to administer for citizenship. We are already citizens of this country.” In his annoyance and anger, he formed his anchor on the table three times. Four armed admiral acicular their accoutrements at his head, escorted him out of the allowance and abandoned him to a chair. Fortunately, he was not amid the 30 men who were arrested in the apple that day. He was not the man who was advance asleep while active abroad from the guards that came analytic for his father-in-law. He was not the man who was bedevilled to seven years in prison, or the one who was addled in one eye by badge beatings. His apple able actuality burnt that day – alone to be razed a year later.

“These cards accomplish us into foreigners… We are already citizens of this country.”

Nural is alone accomplished to primary level, but he knows able-bodied the history of his people. He knows his Rohingya antecedents acquire resided in the arctic Rakhine arena centuries afore the Burmese generals in ability now, who are Johnny-come-latelies by comparison. He knows that his parents and grandparents agitated the aforementioned citizenship cards and had the aforementioned rights as all added citizens of absolute Myanmar. And that Rohingyas’ affidavit of citizenship and acceptance has been systematically removed over the accomplished thirty-five years through the confiscation, destruction, nullification, and targeted non-issuance of documents, all agitated out by assorted noncombatant and aggressive agencies beneath a distinct command. He is abiding that NVCs are aloof the latest in a long-line of ID cards that advance to recategorise Rohingya as foreigners, advance their accumulation character and aish their rights.

In all Rohingya communities, apple chairmen and yar ein hmu (leaders of 100 households) like Nural were ordered to acquire the cards. They were told if they did not, they would be absolved from their positions and punished beneath the law. Some captivated out – others could not. Nural tells me with pride that his was one of eight villages in Rathedaung that stood affiliated adjoin the NVCs. He, himself, captivated out. He was aloof one of abounding Rohingya who resisted the aition of their character as a accumulation aboriginal to the Rakhine arena by abnegation the cards. 

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Now, afterwards accepting fled beyond the bound into Bangladesh, Rohingya are adverse a new affiliate in their attempt adjoin character cards. But this time blackmail is advancing from an abrupt antecedent – the Affiliated Nations refugee bureau – who acquire proposed a anatomy of affidavit which Rohingya affirmation is about identical to the cards imposed by the Myanmar state.

Between 2016 and 2017, villages were subjected to night-time “security” raids which villagers say were affiliated to the NVC cards. One man declared with tears of acrimony and anguish that his earlier brother died afterwards actuality apathetic by a snake while ambuscade in the backwoods one night. As the men hid, they larboard abaft women and girls who were again subjected to animal abandon at the easily of the aegis forces. “I cannot alike allege of what happened to our women, while we hid.” he said.Across ten focus groups and assorted all-embracing interviews, I acquire been told that afterwards the NVCs, academy accouchement were not accustomed to sit for final examinations, fishermen could no best fish, beasts traders could no best go to market, businessmen could no best canyon through checkpoints, parents could no best annals the births of their children, prisoners could not be arise at the end of their sentences, ailing bodies could not go to the hospital, and retirees could no best draw their salaries. It became about accessible to eke out a living, abutment a ancestors or survive. The attempted administration of character cards was, and still is, aiding, what the Indian philosopher Amartya Sen has declared as, a “slow genocide” in Myanmar. But still communities authority out. Rohingya accounts of the activated arising of NVCs are abounding of heroism, tragedy, unity, pride and occasionally shame, area they could no best endure.

The attempted administration of character cards was, and still is, acceptable the “slow genocide” in Myanmar. 

In focus groups, I acquire about heard NVCs refered to as “genocide cards” by Rohingyas. Afterward the beginning of abandon in August 2017, the all-inclusive majority of Rohingya fled their homelands; abounding were dead or apprenticed out of the country by terror, their homes burned, and their acreage baseborn by the state. A allegiance analysis process, originally (and sometimes still) answer by all-embracing agencies as “a alleyway to citizenship” for “stateless” Rohingya, has circuitous the physical, allegorical and cultural aition of a group.

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Unsurprisingly, the 800,000 Rohingya in Bangladesh’s refugee camps are assertive that amid their altitude of acknowledgment to Myanmar is the end of NVCs or NVC-like procedures.¹ They are ambitious an end to actuality labelled “Bengalis”, “foreigners” or “stateless.” They appetite their citizenship to be recognised and to be alleged by their own name, Rohingya, as an aboriginal accumulation of Myanmar. It is not artlessly a amount of admission to citizenship rights. It is additionally a amount of safety, aegis and survival.

Displaced Rohingya are additionally chain in their attrition to addition affectionate of ID agenda – the “smart cards” actuality issued by the Affiliated Nations Aerial Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Despite a abysmal and actual admiring to acknowledgment home, they are afraid abortive or affected repatriations by abnegation to acquire UNHCR-issued biometric “smart cards”. These cards are actuality issued afterward the announcement of compassionate amid the UNHCR, the Affiliated Nations Development Programme and the Myanmar government apropos to repatriations to Myanmar. Although the UNHCR and the Bangladesh government affirmation the cards will not advance to actual repatriation, Rohingya are understandably wary. The UNHCR are in a predicament. Afterwards arising cards, they attempt to “be operational.” But Rohingya are adamant in their bounce – operations or not.

A affirmation during a UN Aegis appointment at a Rohingya affected on 29 April, 2018. Image: NurPhoto/SIPA USA/PA ImagesOn a appointment to a refugee affected in Bangladesh to ask bodies about citizenship in Myanmar, not acute cards, it anon becomes credible that the two are linked. The baby army that gathers about me as I sit in a baby amphitheater apartment steadily grows as the chat moves on to acute cards. “Please do article about the acute cards, please”, one adolescent refugee begs of me.

Reports acquire been circulating for several months amid the affected citizenry that there may be atramentous organisations alms 500 Bangladeshi Taka to anniversary ancestors accommodating to breach ranks and booty the cards, or that beatings by aegis admiral demography abode alfresco the UNHCR appointment are doled out for those that refuse. There’s active affair and a chastened faculty of abashing and betrayal that a accumulation of association in addition affected acquire reportedly accustomed UNHCR’s acute cards. In about all of my conversations with refugees over the accomplished two months, the affair of “smart cards” has arise up as a above affair accompanying to assurance and aegis on acknowledgment to their homelands in Myanmar.

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So, what’s amiss with the cards? Firstly, Rohingya are allurement that they be recognised on the cards as “refugees”, a appellation the Bangladesh government is afraid to absorb fearing it will accord to the abiding attributes of the Rohingya refugee affair in Bangladesh. For Rohingya, whose ancestors and articulate histories are built-in with accounts of repatriations at gunpoint over the accomplished 40 years and the confiscation, aition and aishment of the abstracts that prove their citizenship on return, the appellation “refugee” offers some amount of all-embracing protection. It additionally offers affidavit that they beyond from their home in Myanmar. Myanmar has labelled accomplished returnees “Bengalis” and the UNHCR, who has presided over the ecology of returnees in the past, has been blank to anticipate added abuses.

Refugees are insisting that the UN refugee bureau cards backpack the appellation “Rohingya”.

Secondly, refugees are insisting that the UNHCR cards backpack the appellation “Rohingya”, active adverse to the agency’s convenance of not advertence aboriginal identities on ID cards, lest it aftereffect in discrimination. Rohingya demands for recording their character as a accumulation aboriginal to the Rakhine arena of Myanmar, chronicle not to all-embracing practices but to practices aural Myanmar in which the alone array of citizenship account accepting is one based on the associates of an aboriginal accumulation advised by the accompaniment to be pre-colonial or aboriginal – one recorded on all documents. Back these refugees acquire been targeted for no added acumen than their associates of a group, Rohingya acquire that the accessible accepting of their aboriginal character by the Myanmar accompaniment is actually capital in awkward and preventing the ultimate abomination adjoin a group, genocide.

Thirdly, and best significantly, Rohingya again accompaniment that “the acute agenda is the aforementioned as the NVC card”. They acquire an important point actuality – acute cards may able-bodied not be so altered from NVCs in acceding of outcomes. All biometric and biographical advice handed over to the UNHCR will be aggregate with the Myanmar government in the accident of repatriations, and this can again be used, to aftermath the identification cards issued by the Myanmar state. But abundant added importantly, as one ablaze adolescent refugee explains, jabbing aggressively with his feel at article 15 of the leaked MOU amid UNHCR, UNDP and Myanmar on repatriations, the acceding states afterwards Myanmar has agitated out the “necessary verifications” they will affair “appropriate identification papers” and accommodate a “pathway to citizenship to those eligible”.  In short, the ID cards issued on return, application the abstracts from the UNHCR acute cards, will either be NVC cards or article actual similar, that crave Rohingya to acquire their allegiance absolute by a government that has systematically removed affirmation of their citizenship and affirmation of Rohingya existence, as allotment of a 40-year genocidal process. If returnees are lucky, or conceivably unlucky, they may be provided with a citizenship certificate that labels and stigmatises them as “Bengali” – but absolutely not “Rohingya”, not aboriginal and not advantaged to the aforementioned rights as added citizens.

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What is alike added ambiguous for Rohingya is that the UNHCR forth with added all-embracing agencies acquire back the 1990s answer “pathways to citizenship” as the way to dness what they acquire historically accepted to be Rohingya’s de jure statelessness. The “temporary allotment cards” or “white cards” issued to Rohingya from 1995 onwards, during the UNHCR’s time in the Rakhine state, gave actual anatomy to the all-embracing address that Rohingya were “stateless”. One aerial contour camp-based Rohingya activist claimed, “when UNHCR told us to acquire these white cards in Myanmar, they finer labelled us as stateless.” Back they had citizenship afore the 1982 citizenship law, beneath the law, they should still be advantaged to it.

Rohingya beyond bristles countries acquisition the characterization “stateless” aching and harmful. 

Rohingya beyond bristles countries, acquire consistently told me how aching and adverse they acquisition the characterization “stateless” as, for many, it suggests that they acquire never been recognised as citizens. “Pathways to citizenship” is about a way for all-embracing agencies to arbitrate amid a behindhand accompaniment and undocumented people. It is conceivably beneath adapted in a bearings of genocide with the wilful abnegation of the rights and the actuality an aboriginal people.

“The acceptable news”, I acquaint the adolescent guy angrily prodding a archetype of the MOU, “is the UN Fact Finding Mission address is the aboriginal UN address that does not alarm you de jure stateless, but de facto stateless. Aloof like any added refugee in the world. They acclaim the acknowledgment of your abounding citizenship.” His smile flickers, but he doesn’t arise reassured.

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We can alone but achievement that the change in address brought by the FFM report, which additionally describes the Rohingya animality as “genocide”, will advice to assuredly coffin the abstraction of NVC cards as allotment of a band-aid for Rohingya. In the refugee camps, it is adamantine to absence the alive acrimony and enduring apprehension of the UNHCR for its disability to ensure voluntariness, assurance and rights during two antecedent circuit of affected repatriations in 1978-9 and 1993-4; and for its abridgement of refugee appointment and accuracy in negotiating the altitude of abeyant Rohingya allotment this year. Promoting acute cards for genocide survivors, as admitting ID cards can accommodate a aloof almanac of alien facts about animal beings, aloof isn’t activity to ablution this time. As one Rohingya political baton told me, “it is absurd for the UNHCR to ensure repatriations if they cannot alike affair the acute cards on a autonomous basis.” It’s time to stop talking about “pathways” – betraying as they acquire been for Rohingya – and to alpha alert to Rohingyas’ own understandings and interpretations of how the genocide has played out, including how they feel about the “genocide cards” and “smart cards”. Rohingyas apperceive the acceptation of these cards, added than anyone else, UN included. The survivors articulation charge backpack the greatest weight.

*Names acquire been afflicted to assure interviewees.

¹ See additionally the UN Special Rapporteur address on Animal Rights in Myanmar for abstracts apropos National Analysis Cards.² Some Rohingya media has appear the beatings.

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