When Christel Wallace begin a allotment of cardboard bankrupt up at the basal of her purse in March 2017, she threw it in the trash. She hadn’t yet acclimated the beach bag, fabricated by Walmart and purchased from one of its Arizona aliment months ago.
But afterwards a few minutes, she got curious. She took the cardboard out of the wastebasket, advance the breadth to acknowledge a bulletin cacographic in Mandarin Chinese.
Translated, it read: Inmates in China’s Yingshan Bastille assignment 14 hours a day and are not accustomed to blow at noon. We accept to assignment overtime until midnight. Bodies are baffled for not finishing their work. There’s no alkali and oil in our meals. The bang-up pays 2,000 yuan every ages for the bastille to activity bigger food, but the aliment is all captivated by the bastille guards. Sick inmates accept to pay for their own pills. Prisons in China cannot be compared to prisons in the United States. Horse, cow, goat, pig, dog.
Christel’s daughter-in-law Laura Wallace acquaint a photo of the agenda to Facebook on April 23. The column aboriginal went viral locally, accepting aggregate and admired several hundred times, mostly by adolescent Arizonans. Afterwards a few days, bounded media outlets best up the story; a anniversary or so afterwards that, dozens of boilerplate publications like USA Today and HuffPost followed suit. One video abode on the adventure accumulated 2.9 actor views.
Shares of the agenda affronted shock and outrage. Alike those who were agnostic of the note’s ancestry were incensed, pointing to a added issue. “Who cares if it’s a business stunt?” apprehend one animadversion on Facebook. “If it fabricated bristles bodies amend affairs bargain crap, afresh it’s a success.”
At the time, a Walmart agent told a anchorman in Arizona it was clumsy to animadversion because it had “no way to verify the agent of the letter.”
You may bethink this adventure or one like it. It follows a continued band of SOS-style addendum begin by shoppers. They crop up a few times a year, and anniversary adventure follows the aforementioned beats.
First, a client in the US or Europe finds a agenda in the abridged or on a tag of a artefact from a big banker — Walmart, Saks, Zara. The agenda claims the artefact had been fabricated application affected activity or beneath poor alive conditions. The biographer of the agenda additionally claims to be in a absent country, usually China. The client takes a photo of the agenda and posts it to amusing media. It’s arise on by all sorts of publications from Reuters to Refinery29, breadth the accessories ability millions of readers.
Then the agitation cools, and the adventure avalanche into the viral anniversary abyss. There’s no absolute attack at verification. There’s no allusive accumulated gesture. There’s no admirable reckoning with the arrangement of all-around accumulation from which this cry for advice is said to accept emerged.
As for Christel’s accurate Walmart note, there are a cardinal of possibilities apropos who wrote and hid it, and its capacity are difficult to fact-check. A Chinese bastille declared Yingshan may exist, or it may not. Affected activity may be accomplished there, or it may not. A captive in China may accept accounting the note, or maybe a Chinese activist did, or maybe an American activist instead. The agenda may accept been placed in the bag in a bastille factory, or about abroad forth the accumulation alternation in China, or conceivably in Arizona.
The alone way to accomplish faculty of this addle — one with absolute animal stakes that can advice explain how what we buy is fabricated — is to try to trace the adventure backward, from the moment a agenda goes viral to its abeyant abode of origin. Which is how I acquisition myself in rural China, alfresco of a bounded prison, 7,522 afar abroad from breadth Christel aboriginal opened her purse.
Guilin is a burghal in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Arena of southern China, and a day-tripper haven, acclaimed for the tooth-like karst peaks that acceleration from the banks of the Li River. Its bright lakes and limestone caves draw tens of millions of visitors every year.
To ability Guilin, it takes me two all-embracing flights, two taxis, a one-hour bus ride through bound control, and three hours on a accelerated train. I biking from London through Hong Kong on to Shenzhen and afresh Guilin via the Guangshen Railway. There, I accommodated Channing, a bounded anchorman assassin to advice me acquisition the prison.
We’re in Guilin because of the aboriginal and alone accurate advance in the Walmart note: the name of the prison. The agenda biographer says the bastille is declared Yingshan, and several weeks of assay has led me to accept it’s amid in China’s Guangxi region, home to abounding accomplishment factories because of the area’s bargain activity and low taxes.
The absolute few capacity I can acquisition about Yingshan bastille arise from a 10-year-old abode on prisons beyond China accounting by a animal rights group. The abode suggests the bastille may be in the suburbs of east Guilin, and so the plan is to analyze the neighborhood, allocution to locals, and attending for signs — acid wire, aegis cameras, anything.
But afore we commence on our bastille scouting, we accept article abroad on the agenda: a appointment to the city’s alone Walmart store. It feels important, accustomed the agenda was begin in a Walmart, admitting one on the added ancillary of the globe. Conceivably a Chinese Walmart aing to breadth the agenda allegedly originated can accommodate clues, or at atomic context.
The Guilin Walmart is a 10-minute drive from the centermost of the city, advance beyond two floors in a arcade mall, on a alley lined with scooter adjustment shops. Walmart is the world’s better retailer; it owns 11,700 retail units in 27 countries about the world, including Brazil and South Africa, beneath assorted banderole names. In China, Walmart owns 389 Walmart Supercenters, in accession to 21 Sam’s Clubs and 15 Hypermarkets.
A agenda on Walmart’s Chinese armpit reads: “Walmart China durably believes in bounded sourcing. We accept accustomed partnerships with added than seven thousand suppliers in China. Over 95% of the commodity in our aliment in China is sourced locally.”
The Guilin Walmart sells able-bodied shorts fabricated in Vietnam, girls’ T-shirts fabricated in Bangladesh, and sports jackets fabricated in Cambodia. But for the best part, the store’s accouterment is fabricated in China, some of it aloof a few hours away. There are England football shirts and women’s purses from Guangdong, Apple Cup Russia sandals from Fujian, Frozen and Mickey Mouse tees from Shanghai, and baseball jerseys and Peppa Pig sun hats from Jiangxi.
Countries the apple over animate citizens to “buy local,” so why would China be any different? Still, necessarily, what is bounded to one abode — bounded practice, bounded angle — is adopted to all others. To those in the country, “made in China” agency items produced by their adolescent Chinese that accord to the able-bodied economy. Abroad in the world, decidedly in the US, the byword draws ire, abracadabra images of appurtenances banal in factories with ambiguous altitude by workers who accept supplanted their own country’s workforce.
Walmart in the US has approved and activated the bootleg idea. In 1985, architect Sam Walton accurate a charge to “made in America” products, ablution a affairs declared “Bring It Home to the USA” to buy added US-made goods. About that time, according to anchorman Bob Ortega’s book In Sam We Trust, Walton estimated 6 percent of his company’s absolute sales came from imports; a Frontline abode begin that cardinal may accept been afterpiece to 40 percent. Bill Clinton, afresh the governor of Walmart’s home accompaniment of Arkansas, declared “Bring It Home to the USA” as an “act of patriotism.” The affairs failed.
It’s accessible to accept why. The “made in America” ideal comes added to award the cheapest sources of accumulation — this was accurate in the ’80s, and it’s accurate now. A abstraction arise in 2016 begin that three in four Americans say they would like to buy US-made appurtenances but accede those items too cher or difficult to find. Aback asked if they’d buy an $85 brace of pants fabricated in the US or a $50 brace fabricated in a altered country, 67 percent chose the latter.
Today, Walmart outsources the majority of its accumulation about the world. According to a 2011 abode in the Atlantic, Chinese suppliers are believed to anniversary for about 70 percent of the company’s merchandise. A 2015 assay from the Economic Institute, a accelerating anticipate tank, begin that Walmart’s barter with China may accept alone 400,000 jobs in the US amid 2001 and 2013.
This is article Walmart says it’s aggravating to change. In its 2014 anniversary report, the aggregation apprenticed to absorb an added $250 billion on US-made appurtenances by 2023, adage it believes “we can drive aggregate accumulation by sourcing afterpiece to the point of consumption.” Assay from Boston Consulting Accumulation projected this could actualize a actor new US jobs.
At the initiative’s 2018 centermost point, though, it’s cryptic how abounding jobs accept been created or how abundant money has absolutely been spent. Additionally, in 2015, the Federal Barter Commission accomplished a delving into Walmart’s mislabeling of adopted appurtenances as “Made in the USA.” Walmart took activity by removing inaccurate logos and authoritative its disclosures added transparent, alone to arise beneath blaze for ambiguous “Made in the USA” labels yet afresh the absolute aing year.
Forced activity is frequently accomplished in the Chinese bastille system, which the Chinese Communist Party aboriginal accustomed civic in 1949, clay it on Soviet gulags. The affectionate of crimes that acreage addition in the Chinese chastening arrangement ambit widely, from annihilation and bribery to adage annihilation accidentally bad about the government. Freedom of accent isn’t a absoluteness for Chinese citizens, who can face decades in bastille for publishing accessories about animal rights online.
A assumption of the Chinese amends arrangement is that activity central prisons is acceptable for the country. The government, as able-bodied as abounding of its citizens, believes it helps ameliorate besmirched bodies — and China is far from the alone country to use bastille labor. The US accurately allowances from activity in its bastille system, and while not every US bastille practices chastening labor, hundreds of accoutrements of American inmates assignment jobs that accommodate authoritative appliance and angry fires. In August of this year, prisoners from 17 states went on bang to beef actuality affected to work, anecdotic the convenance as “modern .”
Peter E. Müller, a arch specialist at the Laogai Assay Foundation, and his aggregation abundantly certificate the animal rights abuses central China’s bastille system. This assignment includes anecdotic prisons and camps that apply affected labor, tracking the bedfellow population, and acquisition claimed affidavit from those who accept accomplished affected labor.
He says prisoners in China, the US, and abroad are sometimes paid for their labor. (In the Walmart note, the biographer describes affected activity and beatings, as able-bodied as low pay for continued hours and bloom affliction deducted from payment.) The aggregate depends on the banking bearings of the prison; the boilerplate pay in American accompaniment prisons is 20 cents an hour. Müller says the annual bacon defined in the agenda (2,000 yuan, or $295) is “unusually high,” but speculates that it may be because the bastille “makes acceptable money because of high-quality workers.”
Human rights organizations, such as the Laogai Assay Foundation and China Activity Watch, say the better botheration in endlessly the consign of accessories fabricated in prisons is that the accumulation curve are “almost untraceable.” Accumulation lines, in general, are absolute difficult to trace due to the astronomic complication of supplier networks, a abridgement of advice amid actors, and a accepted absence of abstracts that can be aggregate in the aboriginal place. The aftereffect is a frustratingly blurred all-around arrangement of production.
Li Qiang, the architect and controlling administrator of China Activity Watch, explains that American companies that accomplish abroad abode their orders anon with factories or sourcing companies, and that those factories and companies can alteration the orders to prisons afterwards the company’s knowledge. In fact, some of these relationships are formalized to the point breadth prisons that use affected activity accept a sister branch that coordinates the bastille manufacturing.
It’s about a front, as sister factories will use a bartering name for alfresco trade, carefully mislabeling accessories that are fabricated in prisons. Prisoners are never physically beatific to the sister factories; the capital aggregate of the accumulation happens on bastille grounds. Once about complete, items are afresh beatific to the sister factories, breadth they are able and labeled for all-embracing delivery. This arrangement isn’t accessible for companies to monitor. Suppliers burrow these practices from clients, and supplier checks are not frequent, abnormally for ample corporations like Walmart, which use a ample cardinal of suppliers and subcontractors.
Qiang says the affair can feel intractable. “Even if shoppers in the US accept that the items are actuality fabricated beneath poor alive conditions, there is annihilation they can absolutely do,” he says. “Multinational corporations will not advance in convalescent their accumulation alternation if there are few laws to assure workers whose rights are actuality violated, and no acknowledged lawsuits adjoin brands, companies, or their factories for actionable them.”
On a Tuesday morning in backward May, Channing and I sit at a table in our auberge lobby. We browse bulletin boards on Baidu, one of the country’s best accepted chase engines and amusing networking sites, to see if the affair of bastille activity is discussed on Chinese amusing media, or if it’s a accountable the government censors.
In a amount of seconds, Channing is able to acquisition altercation boards abounding with suppliers attractive to outsource activity to prisons. The conversations are absolutely accustomed — there is no coded language, and abounding addresses and acquaintance numbers are included in postings. We additionally acquisition dozens of posts from bodies alms the casework of prisons they assignment with to accomplish items for beyond companies, including “electronic accessories, bracelets, chaplet bean processing, toy assembly, and shirt processing.”
One column in Chinese reads: “Because our processing cadre are from prison, it has the afterward advantages. The bastille cadre are centralized and stable, and they are managed by the prison. There is no charge to anguish about the breeze of bodies and the curtailment of labor. The processing amount is low: Aback the processing breadth is in prison, there is no charge for manufacturers to accommodate amplitude and accommodation; and the bastille works in the assumption of confined the people, so the processing amount is affirmed to be absolutely lower than the bazaar price. If your aggregation needs it, amuse contact!”
In an accomplishment to verify not alone that Yingshan bastille exists but additionally that it’s one of abounding Chinese factories that use affected activity and arrangement with manufacturers, Channing and I drive adjoin the suburbs in the eastern allotment of Guilin.
Channing asks our disciplinarian to bead us at a aerial academy so we can abide undetected. Nearby, I’d apparent a atom breadth I believed the bastille to be according to the animal rights abode I’d begin afore accession in China. But the bastille isn’t there. In its abode is a crossing, admitting there’s acumen to accept the bastille is bankrupt — a battered assurance pointing larboard reads: Yingshan.
We airing bottomward the alley and acquisition the breadth beneath abundant surveillance. Aegis cameras are anchored assimilate poles on every bend of the pathway. The further we walk, the added accurate the warnings that we shouldn’t be there. Three altered signs formed into a timberline read: “DO NOT APPROACH.”
Yingshan prison, declared in a agenda begin in a Walmart backpack accoutrements of afar abroad in the US, does abide — and we are continuing in advanced of it.
Though it had been difficult to find, it absolutely doesn’t assume so hidden afterwards all. It is chip into the neighborhood, aloof about the bend from a active school, a abounding streets and accommodation blocks.
The bastille doesn’t attending like an archetypal bastille you’d see in the US. If it weren’t for the two aegis watchtowers, Yingshan could be mistaken for a avant-garde residential building. Thick bushes awning aphotic dejected metal fences lined with acid wire. The aerial walls are corrective chrism with adorning white curve demarcating anniversary of the building’s bristles floors. Anniversary window has a accurate white frame, with a metal air aperture attached.
Several guards in compatible are continuing in the parking lot of the architecture aing door. We don’t access them for abhorrence of actuality detained. The Chinese government treats both calm and adopted journalists hostilely. Reporters are generally banned from entering the country, and they accept additionally been bedfast for their work. Our safest bet for acquisition advice is to allege to bodies in the breadth who may accept ties to the prison.
Walking bottomward a added alleyway that runs alongside Yingshan, the apple of Sanjia comes into view. Sanjia is a baby apple that abuts the bastille grounds. In the village, crumbling homes angle alongside gated, avant-garde ones corrective gold. Locals say this is because the acreage is actuality bought out, and that the apple is grappling with redevelopment.
Each actuality we allege to has a claimed affiliation to the prison. They apperceive bodies imprisoned, accept a ancestors affiliate alive inside, or accept formed central themselves. They acquaint us that guards who assignment in Yingshan are housed with their families in an accommodation circuitous aing to the prison. We apprehend this is the architecture with the parking lot abounding with uniformed guards.
Zhenzhu, who asked that her surname not be acclimated for abhorrence of avengement from the government, can see the bastille from her advanced door. A affable woman, she has lived in the apple for 14 years, affective to the breadth appropriate afterwards she was married. As we talk, we apprehend pigs squealing. Zhenzhu explains that those are her pigs, 100 of them, aing aperture in a slaughterhouse she runs with her husband.
When the architecture of the bastille commenced in 2007, Zhenzhu was three months pregnant, and her bedmate was active as a architecture artisan on the project. By the time their babe angry 3, the architecture was complete. Zhenzhu has visited the bastille before, to see an inmate; Yingshan allows visits from ancestors associates beneath abundant security. She says its walls are active so abysmal into the arena that “even if the prisoners appetite to breach out by digging an underground tunnel, they can’t dig through.”
Zhenzhu recounts abundant of what her bedmate told her about his acquaintance at Yingshan. For years afterward the construction, he would appointment for aliment checks and added building; trucks were consistently active t in and out of the prison. The trucks, he told Zhenzhu, were from factories amid in the Guangdong province. Guangdong is home to an estimated 60,000 factories, which aftermath about a third of the world’s shoes and abundant of its textiles, apparel, and toys.
Everyone we allege to, Zhenzhu included, says they’ve apparent activity central the bastille or accept been told about it anon by inmates. None were accustomed with Walmart appurtenances actuality produced there, but some could affirm that women’s appearance is bogus inside.
To those in the village, bastille activity is not aloof accepted knowledge; it’s additionally necessary. They accede the prisoners “bad guys” who accept committed abhorrent crimes. In their eyes, the activity is a acceptable thing: It helps adjust inmates and gets them to accept the amount of work. But that assignment can arise at a abundant cost. According to bounded buzz and furthered by a arise anniversary from a woman who was affiliated to a Yingshan bastille guard, inmates accept been accepted to annihilate themselves because of the poor altitude and affected labor.
Zhenzhu leads us about the bend of the village, to get a ancillary appearance of the prison. She credibility to the architecture we aboriginal anesthetized and tells us that’s breadth the inmates eat and sleep. She afresh credibility to a architecture further in the ambit on the larboard that looks about absolutely the same. It’s additionally corrective cream, but with hardly beyond white window frames; a backyard blocked abaft the bastille bank separates the structures. The added building, she tells us, is for “the work.”
The Walmart agenda followed a attitude of hidden letters begin by shoppers. In 2014, shoppers begin labels stitched into several items of accouterment in Primark aliment beyond the UK. The labels, accounting in English, read: “forced to assignment backbreaking hours” and “degrading branch conditions.”
As the addendum advance beyond amusing media, the fast-fashion aggregation conducted an analysis and begin the labels were fake. The aggregation said the items were all fabricated by altered suppliers, in altered factories, on altered continents. They fatigued it was absurd that the aforementioned labels, abnormally those accounting in English, would arise on all the items and that they believed the labels were allotment of an activist achievement agitated out in the UK.
Though no one claimed acclaim for the labels, activist groups had been waging campaigns to beef Primark’s activity practices in the time arch up to their discovery. War on Appetite led a 2013 attack adjoin the aggregation afterwards added than 1,100 bodies died as a aftereffect of the Rana Plaza collapse. Primark, forth with J.C. Penney and Joe Fresh, was amid the retailers whose accessories were fabricated in the Bangladeshi complex.
Almost all the letters that accept been begin in aliment accept arise beneath accessible scrutiny, as they’re generally doubtable of actuality accounting and buried by activists. The handwriting, the language, and alike the cardboard acclimated for addendum accept acicular to activist work. For example, several addendum and labels, like the Primark ones, were accounting in English. Abounding inmates and branch workers in China, as able-bodied as Bangladesh, arise from poor backgrounds and are absurd to accept had the adventitious to apprentice English in school.
There accept been, however, at atomic two instances in which absolute workers accept claimed the notes. In 2011, a client bought a box of Halloween decorations at an Oregon Kmart. She begin a agenda central the box, allegedly from a captive in China answer that he had fabricated the account beneath affected activity conditions.
Two years later, Zhang — a man who asked newsrooms to alone use his surname for abhorrence of actuality arrested and confined afresh — claimed to be the biographer of the note. He said he buried 20 such addendum during the two years he spent in prison, with hopes they would ability American stores. His autography and bashful English accent accomplishment akin those of the note, but alike then, it wasn’t achievable to absolutely approve his story. As the New York Times wrote, “it was absurd to apperceive for abiding whether there were conceivably added letter writers, one of whose letters ability accept accomplished Oregon.”
The added instance came in 2014, aback a client in New York begin a agenda in a Saks arcade bag she accustomed aback purchasing a brace of Hunter rain boots two years earlier. The note, accounting in English, claimed to accept been accounting by a man in a Chinese prison; it additionally included his email address, photo, and name, which led to the award of the declared author, Tohnain Emmanuel Njong. Originally from Cameroon, he said he’d been teaching English in China aback he was arrested in May 2011 and abominably confined for artifice charges.
In both cases, the final footfall of assay would be to affirm with the prisons mentioned in the addendum that Zhang and Njong served sentences at their accessories and that affected activity occurs there. But aback Chinese prisons debris to accommodate animadversion on such stories, there’s little way of definitively acknowledging the prisoners’ accounts.
In 2017, the authority of hidden addendum came into catechism yet again. Shoppers in Istanbul begin tags central accouterment items in a Zara abundance that read: “I fabricated this account you are activity to buy, but I didn’t get paid for it.”
It angry out Turkish workers, who produced the accouterment for Zara in an Istanbul factory, buried the addendum in protest. The branch breadth they had been active bankrupt bottomward overnight, abrogation them aback afterwards jobs or a antecedent of income. The workers wrote addendum advancement shoppers to burden Zara into giving them the aback pay they were owed. They afresh went to a Zara abundance in the centermost of Istanbul and hid the addendum in the pockets of accouterment actuality awash inside.
The Turkish workers didn’t arise up with the abstraction of the addendum on their own. The Clean Clothes Attack and its accord accomplice Labour Abaft the Label (LBL), an alignment that campaigns for apparel workers’ rights, helped plan the action.
LBL and added attack groups accept organized “note droppings” like this in retail aliment like Zara for abounding years. The addendum call how poor activity practices are abaft the store’s items; LBL gathers advice about these practices through its own letters and interviews.
“Dropping addendum is an addendum of abrogation leaflets in stores,” says LBL’s administrator of action Dominique Muller. “When we anticipate we’re not accepting movement from companies, we about-face to confrontational approach like this.”
LBL doesn’t anguish that the addendum they bulb in aliment could adumbrate any potentially absolute addendum begin in stores. “These addendum are aloof a bead in the ocean. They’re still new” — as an activism tool, that is — “and they will abide to accept an impact.”
As of this June, the Turkish workers had alone accustomed fractional payment.
Finding Yingshan brought some answers about the authority of the note. For one, the bastille called in the Walmart agenda exists. We heard immediate accounts from locals who said affected activity does action central the bastille as the agenda described. What we were told about the assignment is that the hours are long, the assignment is done indoors, and the activity involves accomplishment appearance items, which ability accommodate accoutrements like the purse Christel bought in Arizona.
After Walmart issued its account about there actuality “no way to verify the agent of the letter,” the aggregation launched an centralized investigation. It was begin that the branch that fabricated the purse didn’t attach to Walmart’s standards, which accent the charge for “labor to be voluntary” and accompaniment that “slave, child, underage, forced, bonded, or attached activity will not be tolerated.” As a result, the aggregation cut ties with the supplier, a accommodation the aggregation alone appear afterwards it was contacted for this story. Walmart beneath to analyze whether the supplier in catechism had apprenticed with Yingshan prison.
In a account to Vox, a Walmart agent wrote: “Walmart has austere standards for our suppliers, and they charge acquaint us breadth our accessories are actuality made. Through our analysis into this matter, we begin the supplier’s branch beatific purses to be fabricated at added factories in the arena that were not appear to us. The supplier bootless to chase our standards, so we chock-full accomplishing business with them. We booty allegations like this seriously, and we are committed to a amenable and cellophane accumulation chain. There are after-effects for our suppliers aback our standards are not followed.”
One aftermost catechism did abide unanswered. Was the agenda accounting by an absolute prisoner, or by an activist with ability of the altitude that produced the bag? Müller of the Laogai Assay Foundation believes the agenda is absolutely real.
The description and capacity referenced in the note, he says, mirror abundant of what he’s heard in interviews with above prisoners. He says the language, the appearance of writing, and the use of the byword “horse cow dupe pig dog” — a accepted announcement in China that compares the analysis of prisoners to that of animals — add to its authenticity. He believes the biographer of the agenda absolutely risked his activity to accelerate his message.
Even if the agenda is real, though, what’s arise to ablaze during the advertisement of this adventure is that the Walmart agenda won’t end affected activity in China. The government is not activity to absolution a accessible account accusatory animal rights abuses central its prisons because of belief like this one. It doesn’t see affected activity as a animal rights abuse; Chinese citizens who don’t abutment the practices accident arrest if they allege out, and so best won’t.
The pitfall of pinning ameliorate on acquaintance is assured a bad affair to end if abundant bodies apperceive about it. Absolute rarely does accumulation absorption on an affair aftereffect in a actual about-face in how things work. If alone administration advice were enough, the endless viral belief about affected activity anecdotal actuality would accept already resulted in boundless reform.
Still, the incremental change the Walmart agenda led to — about impossibly small, about acutely inconsequential — is a step. It has to be.
Additional advertisement by Channing Huang.
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